The purpose of my training programme is to provide a guideline for myself to follow when exercising my six week programme in my chosen sport football. As well as this it will also target my areas for improvement
GCSE Sports Studies
Training Plan for football
Greg Cameron 11AMc
Greg Cameron Sports Studies coursework: Training Plan Jan 06 11 AMc Football
Purpose/Aim of training programme in relation to prior fitness, performance levels and any injuries/health problems:
- The purpose of my training programme is to provide a guideline for myself to follow when exercising my six week programme in my chosen sport football. As well as this it will also target my areas for improvement (my weaknesses) whilst maintaining my current strengths. These will include both skill exercises (involving a football) and health related fitness exercises (e.g. anaerobic and aerobic training etc). It will ensure that I am training at various intensities and recreating a match like atmosphere for some situations. The programme is aimed at improving my knowledge of the game in terms of skill; it will open up my use of skills such as dribbling and accuracy of my shots, passes and crosses allowing me to perform consistently at a higher level of skill. In terms of fitness it will ensure that I am performing at a high intensity for a long period of time and preparing myself for the rest season allowing me to be at peak fitness for the season.
- Within my programme I will be targeting several aspects of fitness that will help me improve in sport, these will be; aerobic fitness, anaerobic fitness, agility, muscular power, muscular endurance speed and skill related aspects of football as well. However although my programme will target these, my programme will specifically focus on two of the aspects above and then focus on specific areas within them. The two aspects I will be focussing on are my accuracy with the ball (my skill focus) and my all round endurance (both muscular and cardio-vascular wise). I have chosen these two aspects because I think that by improving these two areas the most will be more beneficial to me in the long run than if I were to improve on lots of aspects over the six weeks and only make small improvements in each area whereas I can make large improvements in two aspects that will aid me more in a game situation.
- I will be focussing on my muscle endurance/stamina as in a game I will be required to perform at a high intensity for long duration (90mins). The benefit of improved stamina means that I will be able to push myself harder throughout a match and so be able to make more energetic back tracking runs and more consistent forward runs during the game without fatiguing. MY programme will target specific muscle groups in each weight session and be doing a lot of high weight low repetition work in order to build up the endurance to which my muscles can sustain the intensity needed. The programme will target on improving my stamina and will be focussing on a lot of cardio-vascular sessions such as Fartlek and continual training. This is so that I can be practiced at constantly being at work (training) under varied intensity as in some matches the game will be played at a slower or faster pace. The overall purpose of the programme (when focussed on this aspect) is to build up a gradual increase of intensity and duration to which I am training and by performing the bleep test at the end of each week I can measure my progress easily. The other reason for focussing on my stamina/endurance side of my sport is because from pre-test scores my endurance is one of the stronger aspects and so by training over the six weeks to improve it will give me a much greater advantage over an opponent as I will be at a much higher level than they are whereas should I have focussed on one of the lesser important aspects and improve that then it would take more for me to reach the higher level and continue improving and the aspect is one which does not need to be of a higher standard in order for me to improve my game.
- I am choosing in my programme to focus on my accuracy as my main skill aspect as this will help my all round game, both attacking and defending (in terms of passing). The purpose of my programme will be to develop and improve not only my range of passing skills but also to focus on improving the degree of accuracy to which I deploy my shots, passes, crosses. In order to do this I will be doing a lot of target practice a work and so my programme will be aimed at increasing target distances as each session goes along this will also include a small amount of pressure training which will help me to deploy the ball under pressure as if in a match situation with an opponent closing me down. This focus will also include left and right footed work and will involve constantly aiming at one focus point and then crossing, shooting, passing to the target until consistently achieving my aim.
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- The above are the main focus of the programme however below are sub aspects that will also be improved during the programme and are aloes necessary to my improvement of my game within football.
- I am choosing to work on my anaerobic fitness because it will help me in match situations where I need quick bursts of explosive activity e.g. attacking the defending full back on the wing however the programme will co-ordinate this type of training with aerobic training as it requires a good foundation of aerobic fitness. The main focus of my anaerobic fitness will be my speed over short distances e.g. 6-7 yards as this will help give me an advantage over my opponent.
- Agility is another aspect which will be touched on in the programme but as above it is only a sub aspect of the programme and so will not be focussed on as much as Accuracy and Endurance. Agility is a good aspect to improve as this will allow me to change direction/position at quicker speeds, and will be useful in areas such as attacking a full back or defending in the box.
- My programme will help in improving my muscular power and muscular endurance because and this is key because; muscular power will help me not only in terms of my speed but in the power of my shots and crosses and also improve my strength on and off the ball e.g. shrugging off tackles and executing tackles strongly ( but fairly) but and the muscular endurance will help to perform at this new state of strength for longer (to perform at a higher intensity for longer throughout the match) thus reducing the risk of muscle fatigue.
- The programme will improve my speed because it is one of the necessary strengths within football and it is an aspect that is involved in all areas of the game, the aim is to improve my speed and my training will be co-ordinated with my muscular strength training, by improving my speed it will also help me in the strength of my shots etc.
- I feel that my previous/current performance levels within all of theses above areas are good but are all in need of much improvement in order to compete at a high level, there is not an aspect which is particularly bad and so my training programme will consist of evenly spread activities to cover all the targeted areas.
- In terms of any injuries I may already I have I am totally fit to begin the training and ultimately my fitness should improve as I go along in order to sustain the level needed to complete the programme although I will take into account a reoccurring hip muscle inflammation that sometimes affects my movement in my left leg however this has been subdued for some time and I am currently receiving treatment for it however it has been cleared by the physio that any training will not worsen the injury but help to treat it and so should not be a worry whilst training however with this said I my training programme takes this injury into account and so does not require strenuous tension on the legs for too long a period and so provides a balanced plan that will keep all areas of ability in equal measure of time whilst training to maximise all of the aspects rather than focussing on some for longer than others.
- Within my training programme I must consider a number of safety aspects, there are several areas I will need to look at to ensure that my six week programme stays safe and reduces the risk of injury to not only myself but others. This includes hygiene, safety equipment, prevention of injury measures, psychological and physiological aspects of safety however this is all broken down into ten sections within a risk assessment.
- Health and Fitness: I must initially consider if I am physically fit enough to meet the general fitness requirements needed for my six week programme. As my programme is a gradual increase of intensity I feel that I am capable of exercise. This aspect of safety also includes nutrition, in order for my training to be effective I must maintain a healthy balanced diet remembering to take in a lot of fluid before, during and after the training as this will reduce the chances of fatigue.
- Warm up: I must ensure that I warm up efficiently an appropriately in order to execute my training programme activities, this will help to prevent any injury I may sustain whilst training at a gradual increase intensity, the warm up will have a pulse raising exercise, specific stretching (plyometrics and PNF) and then skill related exercises, following this guideline should maximise effectiveness and minimise risk of injury during the actual training. It will be related to football and will include low intensity exercises similar to those within the training programme. It will also help to prevent lactic acid build up whilst I am training.
- Clothing, jewellery etc: whilst performing my training programme I must ensure that I have no loose clothing as this may inhibit my ability to train. I will not wear any jewellery as this could cause damage to myself if were to suffer fall and/or could cause harm to anyone participating with me during my programme. I will ensure that I wear the correct clothing e.g. shin pads as I may need theses when practising tackling drills etc. I will be wearing light clothing such as shorts, t-shirt and possible a clima-cool jumper that can be removed after the warm-up.
- Footwear: when doing my training plan I will be executing it on a playing field, as I am doing this I will need to ensure that I have a reliable a sturdy set of footwear. I will use studded football boots as this will give me the support and protection I need to train at a high intensity, whilst also accounting for the environmental situations e.g. rain etc, in addition to this I will make sure that the footwear is securely fastened at all times as should it not be the use of the boots would become obsolete.
- Equipment: As far as equipment is concerned, I will be using various sets of exercise cones, hurdles ladders etc, before I begin my training I will check all equipment to make sure that it is safe enough to use an is not of any danger to anyone. Similarly I will be checking with the gym that I will be using as to all of their rules and regulations and how safe they are and what the safety measures for the apparatus are. Football posts and nets will be a key feature in the training and so these must be in good condition in order to be safe enough to use.
- Facilities: the facilities that are included in my training programme must have all undergone safety checks and are properly maintained as any damage to surfaces could cause injury whilst training, I will not be training on hard surfaces over lengthy periods of time as the surface may cause stress injuries to ligaments and joints due to the situation of not being experience of running on such surfaces. Indoor facilities must also be maintained and safe, the surfaces maybe hard they will be spring supported and smoothe and so will be much safer to train on rather than the hard dry ground or of going for a run on concrete pavements.
- Rules: I must be aware of all the rules within the game of football as this will ensure that my training is not obsolete, as this will not help to prepare me for a match situation as my training will be unnecessary. This includes rules within the gym that I will be doing sessions at as part of my training. This is also similar to that of gym work; I will make sure I am totally aware of the rules of training within the gym.
- Etiquette: I must also ensure that I know the rules of etiquette as this will also enable me to ensure that my training is appropriate and is not going to be a danger to myself or anyone else when I am in a match situation.
- Prevention of injury measures: Initially the first way of preventing the risk of an injury is to follow all of the above focussing on warming up and down properly before and after training, however I will take into account what type of session I will be doing and assess if I need any support e.g. weight training may call for the use of elbow supports when bench pressing etc.
- Physiological: As well as all of the standard safety measures that need to be considered, one of the key aspects is the physiological state that the training is going to be performed under. The skill related training specifically will be performed outdoors (but can be transferred indoors if needed), if the conditions are frozen then the training will either have to be postponed or moved indoors as the icy conditions are more likely to cause an injury. Wet conditions could cause the risk of injury due to slippery conditions however this shouldn’t present a problem as the correct footwear should adhere to this (these type of conditions could be of benefit as it could re-create the conditions that a match may be played under so provide vital experience). When the weather is cold however the correct clothing must be worn (warm-insulating) as this will help to prevent the risk of hypothermia, it is the same for extremely hot conditions, the dry surface could cause injury risks but should not be a problem, however the correct clothing must be worn (breathable) otherwise the risk of dehydration may pose a threat.
Appropriateness/purpose of exercises/techniques and exercises used to improve fitness/skills:
- Within my training programme I will be doing a number of exercises that will help to improve either my fitness or skill in one way or another and theses are all appropriate as they are exercises that are aimed to improve one of my targeted areas listed above, the fitness exercises are especially appropriate as the anaerobic exercises will develop my quick burst of explosive action for matches, the aerobic exercises will help to develop my stamina and endurance work, (perform higher for longer), the muscular work will aid in both of the two previous (explosive action and reduces chances of fatigue) and agility because it will give me an advantage when attacking over my opponent if I can change direction with the ball quickly and whilst defending as I can mark an attacker from all angles. Theses are all appropriate to the training and to football as they are all necessary components that need to be at a high level in order to perform at a high intensity with a high degree of skill (in football). It is necessary that I am training to improve all aspects of my game and not just one attribute, this will give me an overall wider advantage over opponents in all areas rather than just in one or two.
- The types of training I will be doing, weight training, Fartlek training, circuit training, agility training (ladder work) and skill related exercises and also a mild intensity of pressure training during my training matches, these exercises will help to improve my anaerobic and aerobic strengths and my skills with a ball within the game of football.
- To improve my main focus area of accuracy I will be doing the exercises below;
- Another skill related exercise is my accuracy this will cover all the attributes of shooting, crossing and passing. I will be setting up markers using cones and position them in various areas around the pitch, I will begin with passing accuracy, using 10 balls I will set a distance of around 5m to begin with (as I will be increasing the distance by 5-7 m each session) an aim to put each ball comfortably between the cones. To improve my crossing accuracy I will be setting the cones in an area of the box and practice aiming for these cones from the touch line each time increasing the position of the cones within the box. For my shooting I will cornering off sections of the goalmouth, and aiming to put each shot (ten in total) into the section of the goal exposed, I will begin with close shots to low areas and gradually increase to long shots to the top corners of the goals. This is necessary because it will allow me to be comfortable with passing and shooting from all areas of the pitch and all distances of the pitch with minimal area. To monitor my progress I will be recording how much success I have in terms of the number or balls that achieve the target (cones or area of goal mouth) and seeing how this improves each week. As well as all of the above I will be using my school games sessions as training matches and not only will this be used as my session of pressure training but will also aid me in applying the skills I have trained on and putting them into a match situation but will also help to reduce the effect of tedium as each match will be different and it falls in the middle of my training week and so will split the hardcore training in half.
- I will be doing involve dribbling between sets of cones set in various formations of difficulty, this will help to improve my close control and dribbling ability, this is appropriate because it will help when dribbling in space and manoeuvring out of tight close contact situations within a match. This will be done in accordance with the ball and off the ball runs between the cones, ladders and hurdles. To test my self I will do the Illinois run after every session and also time how long it takes me dribble between a set of ten cones and back, monitoring my progress from session to session.
- IN order to improve my endurance work both muscular wise and cardio-vascular I will be doing the sessions below;
- I will be doing one session of circuit training a week with the stations concentrating on upper body strength and power, as well as lower body power, this will include stations such as sit-ups, pull-ups and squats, the training will involve doing each station for about 45 seconds at a high intensity with around 2 minutes rest between each station. As the sessions progress I will increase the length of each station duration by 15 seconds whilst decreasing the resting time by 5 seconds. This is done to maximise my anaerobic fitness as it will improve my power in upper and lower body strengths and is necessary because o will need strong explosive actions for shooting, sprinting and passing in a match. To measure my progress I will see how many pull-ups (for example) I can do in the asserted time and how long I can hold the stress positions e.g. squats. These exercises will target the hamstrings, gastrocnemius and the quadriceps which are vital muscles within football as well as targeting upper body strength in arms and shoulders which will benefit me when running on the ball and tackling off the ball. The circuit training will be in conjunction of plyometrics as they focus of key muscles and maximise power of theses muscles.
- I will be doing a session of Fartlek a week; this will include exercises of sprinting, walking and running. I will begin with a straight sprint at high intensity for around 8 seconds as (as in football most sprints only last for around twelve seconds on average) and will gradually increase the duration as each sessions continues and follow up with a light jog for around 10 minutes, I will then walk for around 1minute 30 seconds and then rest for around 2 minutes 30 seconds, this will allow my heart rate to lower and prepare me for the next activity. This set will then repeat itself 3 times but with varying times and distances. This is appropriate to football training because it will build up my aerobic fitness and will help to allow me to perform at a higher intensity for longer during a match. I will measure my progress by doing the bleep test at the end of each week monitoring my progress through the stages. As well as this I will be monitoring my heart rate after the sessions have finished and then every 30 seconds to see how my recovery time improves each session/ each week.
- I will be doing weight training in order to build up the specific muscles needed for football concentrating on the power and endurance of my leg muscles (quadriceps, hamstrings etc), I will also be doing upper body work, using the high weight low rep system to build up my strength and will begin with 3 sets of 10 reps at 8kg and will gradually increase this weight by 0.5 kg each week. This will built up the intensity to which I am training and is necessary in order to help prevent muscle fatigue when playing in a match. I will use this type of progression for each muscle group however with different starting weights etc.
Appropriate application of activities within the programme in relation to theoretical areas and principles of training, S.P.O.R.T:
- Although my training covers a wide area of fitness that could be beneficial for most sports the training has to be specific to football including specific muscle groups, skills and fitness’s required, it must have progression in it, where I am increasing the distances I’m running or increasing my crossing distances etc, it also has to have the aspect of overload where am increasing the intensity, duration and frequency of my training. I must also take into account reversibility and how the effects of this will damage any training I will already have done, and finally I must look at why tedium is vital in my training in order to prevent boredom of training and repetition which may lead to reversibility if not dealt with:
- Specificity: my training programme is specific to football, my skill exercises are all done using a ball, e.g. shooting, passing, dribbling, this is necessary because it specifically targets areas that are needed within football such as passing stamina etc. This is applied in my training programme as I do anaerobic and aerobic fitness and focus on key skills within passing, shooting and crossing accuracy.
- Progression: as my body is adapting to the my training it will progress t a new level of fitness, in order to progress to the next level I much gradually increase the intensity to which I am pushing myself to training this will be helped by the overload theory in which I increase the intensity, duration and frequency of each exercise in my training. It is applied in my training where I increase weights and push myself to train for longer, and by increasing the length of the sessions I do each day as the weeks go by.
- Overload: my training must be gradually increased in order to maximise the effect this training has, I must increase the intensity, duration and frequency of the exercises I am doing in order to continue increasing over each session. This is applied in my programme where I increase the distances ran, the distances passed or crossed and by increasing the size of the weights used and the duration for which I am doing each session I will prolong the length of time I am running and in terms of weights I will be increasing the number of reps in each sets. Each session will be prolonged by 15 minutes each week for the six weeks. If I was to both mentally and physically train myself for above the 90mins requirement and train for “extra time” I will ensure that I am at peak fitness for matches and am able to give more than my all in terms of fitness commitments without fatigue.
- Reversibility: although all of the above will increase my fitness and skill levels within football I have to remember that fitness cannot be stored only maintained and it is with this theory that I must ensure that I do not slack off when training, I must stick strictly to the programme. My programme applies preventions to this well as it increases the number of sessions and duration of sessions each week without any one week being an exception although my training weeks has a rest day in the middle of the week(s) the progression of the intensity will help to counteract this.
- Tedium: this is when the training becomes too repetitive and becomes boring this will affect my “drive” to push myself and give it my all when training and so may cause my training to become obsolete. In order to prevent this I will make sure that when doing the skill related exercises I am changing the positions every week of the passing, shooting and crossing targets every week, and I will rearrange the style of the course I am doing when doing agility training and dribbling training so each week the training presents a new challenge. Also as a non energy expending exercise I will be doing unrelated sports on the final day of each week for an hour in order to clear my mind of the training I have been doing for the 3-5 days a week, these sports will include, badminton, tennis, and swimming, this will mentally help to be relieved of the stress of the specific football training and help me to be fully prepared for the following week of training without having any premonitions about the training as well as also helping to increase my level of aerobic fitness (swimming), flexibility (badminton and tennis) and also my agility and anaerobic fitness (badminton).