• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

"Affirmative action has failed because of a lack of political will" Discuss

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Affirmative action has failed because of a lack of political will, discuss. Affirmative action refers to the measures put in place to create equal opportunities (in employment, housing, education and representation in politics) for ethnic minorities in the USA. If the evidence shows that politicians have not put enough effort or time into the implementation of such measures, then it is because of a lack of ?political will? that affirmative action has failed. However, there are other explanations for its failure, put forward by politicians both white and African American. In the month of the Voting Rights Act of 1965, Lyndon B. Johnson made a speech that defined the goals of affirmative action. His views were, to simply tell African-Americans to go about making something of themselves after centuries of exploitation is fundamentally unfair. In order to truly give equality, they must be compensated for the suffering they had endured in the past, to even out the ?head start? that many slave owning white families had by profiting from exploitation. ...read more.

Middle

A strong willed political opposition to the measures is not to be underestimated as a factor in its failure, rather than a lack of political will entirely. Some conservative politicians are averse to affirmative action, viewing it as an assault on the 14th Amendment rights of Americans to equality of opportunity, moving away from the meritocratic society they believe exists in America. President Bush (43) for example, publically opposed the University Of Michigan?s affirmative action policy based on minority quotas, on the grounds that such preferences are ?divisive, unfair and impossible to square with the constitution.? There has always been a strong willed pro-affirmative action liberal backing from the very beginning. President Clinton in the 1990?s was colloquially known as the ?first black President? owing to his strong support for affirmative action. ?Mend it, don?t end it? was the phrase used, which shows his admission that it is to some extent broken, but a fundamentally good principle. The Clinton administration saw a resurgence of political will to ?mend? or further implement plans for affirmative action. ...read more.

Conclusion

Although Fisher v. University of Texas is showing political will for affirmative action to continue, there is a view within some circles that university scholarship organisations favour racial minorities to such an extent that it is impossible to acquire a scholarship if you are a Caucasian male. The Former Majority Association For Equality, an organisation offering scholarships only to white males, believe that many white males applying to higher education institutions across the United States are being discriminated against purely based on their race, with no consideration as to their class or other obstacles preventing their achievement. This is yet another example of political will to end affirmative action. In conclusion, there was once a large force of political will behind affirmative action, particularly in the immediate aftermath of the Civil Rights Act. Political will for its implementation has however diminished over time and met steadily increasing opposition from all wings of American politics. Yes it has not had sufficient political will behind it, but political opposition to affirmative action is not to be underestimated as a cause of its failure, nor is the race focused approach . ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level United States section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level United States essays

  1. There is no longer any significant barriers to opporunity for African Americans ~ Discuss

    to use affirmative action to benefit underrepresented groups. Indeed, the top Universities in the US admit to having broken previous records with an 11.8% African-American intake of students (Which fairly represents the proportion of the population who are African Americans at around 12%).

  2. US pressures groups are undemocratic, discuss

    They see this 'competition' as being one that is often unequal. There are a number of policy areas in which groups representing the opposing side of the argument are clearly unequal, for example the area of the environment. Many would argue that the resources of big business often outweigh the resources of the environmental protectionists.

  1. Why & with What Success has Affirmative Action been used to Promote Equality in ...

    Affirmative action is otherwise known as positive discrimination. It was designed as a temporary tool to level playing field for all Americans. The key feature of affirmative action is that it takes active measures to promote access to education, employment, school admissions, salary increases and financial aid for previously disadvantaged groups.

  2. The Political System of the USA

    It approves or disapproves the main presidential appointments: Ambassadors. Cabinet Members and federal judges; also ratify by a 2/3 vote treatments between the USA and foreign countries. The House of Representatives has a special power of its own - to invent a bill to raise money.

  1. This paper aims to examine Mabini's political stance for the Filipino Nation.

    Routine is the antithesis of a revolution (Mabini, 24)." Indeed, Mabini spoke with such firmness regarding in issues that mattered to him. However at times, he mellowed down and appealed to the American people to hear their cause. He countered the Americans' claim that the Filipinos provoked the hostilities that led to the Philippine-American War.

  2. "What Factors contribute to a 'Failed' presidency? Illustrate your answer with examples from the ...

    By using his inflated powers he went into a Presidential war with Vietnam, without gaining Congresses approval. This evidently proved to be disastrous for Johnsen, due to number of deaths and resulted in the Presidential powers being checked and regulated by Congress.

  1. Ethnic minorities in the USA

    This is a significant power because the President can choose a judge who reflects his own outlook, and that judge cannot later be sacked by another President. However, the choice of judges must be ratified (i.e. confirmed) by the Senate.

  2. Politics and Satire. In the United States the First Amendment protects satirists. There ...

    The public knew little about the nominee from Alaska and SNL helped define Palin. Tina Fey portrayed Palin as unintelligent and a poor speaker with a thick Alaskan accent. Shortly after the skit aired, the Holistic Communications Decision Research and the Muhlenberg College Institute of Public Opinion released a nationwide

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work