European decolonisation after the World War Two.

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European decolonisation after the World War Two

Background of European colonisation:

  • European colonisation started since European Powers navigated and explored around the world in 15th century.
  • European Powers colonized on every continents.
  • The pace of European colonisation went faster after the Industrial Revolution, because of advance in technology of European Powers and their higher desire for colonies.
  • At the early 20th century, over 10000000square miles and 150million population were under colonial rule.

Why European Powers established colonial empire?

  • Rise of imperialism – European Powers seek for colonies in the object of imperialistic power expansion.
  • External trade – After the Industrial Revolution, productivity of European countries increased sharply that local consumption wasn’t adequate to absorb it. European Powers captured colonies and exported goods to colonies in order to solve the problem of excess productivity.
  • Source of material and natural resources – Large amount of material and natural resources were needed by European powers for economic use and also support their military force.
  • Sign of hegemony – Colonies were also a sign of hegemony, national glory, power and strength.
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Major colonial states in Europe before the World War Two:

  • Britain – colonized India, Malaya, Pakistan, Burma, Ghana, Kenya, Zimbabwe, Hongkong, Gibraltar, Ski Lanka, etc.
  • France – colonized Algeria, Vietnam etc.
  • Portugal – colonized Guinea-Bissau, Cape Verde, Mozambique, Angola, Macau etc.
  • Spain – colonized Sahara, Guinea etc.
  • Belgium – colonized Congo, Zaire etc.

Collapse of colonial Empires

European countries forgone most of their colonies within few decades after World War Two.

Summary of European decolonisation:

British decolonisation:

  • India independent in 1947.
  • Burma independent in 1948.
  • Ski Lanka independent in 1948.
  • ...

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