The European integration has processed for a long period of time and it has promoted the stability of economy, politic and security of Europe. The European integration initiated after the Second World War, and it has developed steadily through the negotiations of the member states. There are various reasons why European integration has changed over time. This essay will examine the main reasons, economic, politic and security reasons, for the changing of European integration after the Second World War. Firstly, it will examine the reason for integration movement at the beginning of the European integration. Afterwards, it will state that European integration focused on economic development for the political union by 1980s. Also, it will argue that European integration significantly changed after the collapse of communism in order to maintain security in Europe which enhanced economic and political aspects of development.

The beginning of the European integration

After the Second World War, Europe was unstable and faced political, economical and security problems. Nugent states that economic, political and security problems were primary concerns of Western Europe (Nugent, 2003, 15). The economy of Europe collapsed and industry was destroyed as a result of the two total wars. In addition, there was a huge threat to security by the Soviet Union and the Cold War took place as a consequence of the ideological differences. Moreover, the treatment of Germany remained as the core problem in Europe which caused two world wars. The crucial point was that Franco-Germany rivalry should have turned to Franco-Germany alliance in order to benefit Western Europe. Therefore, integration was significantly demanded rather than competition and nationalism. According to MaCormich, Winston Churchill, who advocated ‘a United States of Europe’, claimed that the core of European integration would be axis of Franco-Germany alliance. In addition, Germany had to be allowed to rebuild their economy and political system in a way aiming at reconstruction of economic and security in Europe (MaCormich, 1999, 64-65). Especially, French Prime Minister Monnet predicted great benefits from Germany’s coal producing area, Ruhr, to be used to benefit steel production in France (Dinan, 2005, 21). Moreover, according to Young, regionally, West Germany took significant position in order to resist the expansion of the Soviet communism to West (Young, 1991, 56).

This was followed by the Schuman Plan which led to negotiations to co-operate coal and steel by eliminating the tariff on these products under the supranational authority, which was also keeping an eye on Germany. On 18 April 1951 six countries (France, West Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands) signed the Treaty of Paris which created the European Coal and Steel of Community. However, other European countries were reluctant to join the integration movement. According to Urwin, Britain was inevitably necessary to European integration in order to strengthen security in Europe, but Britain refused to join the community due to the loss of sovereignty under the supranational authority. Also, Scandinavian countries hesitated to join the European integration without Britain (Urwin, 1997, 73, 83). Furthermore, Portugal and Spain were under dictatorships and Switzerland kept neutrality. Therefore, France and Germany alliance invited Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, who were economically close to them and Italy also sought alliance in order to abolish internal communism (Bomberg, 2008, 26-27).

The establishment of the ECSC was the most significant achievement at the beginning of the European integration and it became the foundation of the European Union. It was the first step towards federation of Europe and a supranational institution. Nelsen and Stubb state that the aims of the ECSC were the settlement of peace and economic development of European countries (Nelson and Stubb, 2003, 16). However, in practice, as it is presented by Urwin, Schuman and Monnet aimed at establishing a common market under the supranational element for further political unification beyond the economic integration (Urwin, 1997, 99, 101). Dinan criticises its operational performance ‘It was an unglamorous organization that inadequately symbolized the high hopes of supranationality in Europe.’ (Dinan, 2005, 30) Even though it was the first significant integration movement, it was a too rapid movement for further political unification for federal Europe.

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Deepening of European integration versus widening of European integration

Essentially, as Nugent explains, the nature of European integration can be divided into two categories of the deepening of European integration process as ‘the extending of supranationalism and of policy competences’ and the widening of European integration process as ‘the bringing of new members’ (Nugent, 2003, 507).

In 1956, the Community faced a significant issue on its economic functions. The Suez episode became a turning point to reconsider the European organisation for further economic integration due to the cutting off of oil from Middle East. Hence, Wegs and Ladrech indicate ...

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