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AS and A Level: European Union

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 8
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  1. Marked by a teacher
  2. Marked by a teacher

    ‘The main democratic deficit in the European Union is psychological, not institutional.’ Discuss.

    4 star(s)

    Dogan (1992) offered the following definition 'people hold the belief, that ... institutions are appropriate or morally proper'. The EU however, as I will explain later is indirectly elected and does not conform to this idea of legitimacy. Using the Western ideas of democracy and legitimacy to come to the conclusion of a democratic deficit is over-simplified as it relates to nation-states, yet the European Union is a unique concept and far removed from the model of a traditional nation-state. This begs the question; shouldn't different versions of democracy and legitimacy apply? This means an examination of the decision-making process is required to establish/disprove democratic and legitimate elements within the EU.

    • Word count: 1589
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Should Britain Join the Euro

    The past few decades have shown we need all the measures we can to keep control of the economy! To illustrate this problem, let us suppose that there are inflationary fears in Germany and France, two influential member countries, but not in Britain. In response the ECB is likely to set high interest rates to dampen economic activity and curb inflation. However, in Britain this dampening of activity is not needed as there is little inflationary pressure. The high interest rates set by the ECB merely serve to slow down the British economy. This problem may be aggravated by the fact that Britain is very sensitive to interest rate changes.

    • Word count: 1584
  4. The UN is an ineffective Peacekeeper. Discuss

    This was a way of preventing civil war and the creation of failed states in places like Somalia. Finally the third generation of peacekeeping operations have included peace-building. Peace-building identifies and strengthens internal structures within states which will prevent conflicts from breaking out. The role of the UN in peacekeeping operations has declined dramatically but there has been an increase in the need for both peace-enforcement and peace-building operations. The same factors determine the success or failure of the UN in all these situations.

    • Word count: 1545
  5. Has Europe become a federal superstate?

    The Lisbon Treaty, which will be discussed later, has served to further entrench its existence as the single European currency. With a single currency, except Denmark and the UK who have opt-outs, the possibility for a federal superstate is far more likely. Centralised banks and supranational economic institutions pin down the possibility of a supranational government and entity as a whole. Within the USA, the single currency across all the states was a prerequisite for federalism. Furthermore with a single currency and a single trade area, states of the EU can trade with each other without tariffs, sanctions or limitations.

    • Word count: 1512
  6. French Republic

    France has passes many anti-terrorism laws such as the Law on Daily Security or another law proposed by the Ministry on Internal Affairs of France. That law facilitates the surveillance of communications allowing the police to obtain communication data from telephone operators, Internet Services Providers and Internet cafes. France has also passed many laws since the attack on the United States of America on September 11th and the later London Bombings. Within 10 days of the September 11 attacks, the EU acted to establish a Union-wide list defining acts of terrorism and appropriate penalties.

    • Word count: 1253
  7. Background and Development of the EU

    Secondly, I will evaluate the objectives of the original EEC. Thirdly, I will give details of the role of the key institutions of the EU. And finally, I will clarify the future aims of the EU. The European Union was first established as European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1951, after the Second World War. This community started of with six member states which are the Netherlands, Germany, France, Belgium, Italy and Luxembourg. The ECSC decided to form this community to prevent from outbreak of conflict.

    • Word count: 1319
  8. European Monetary Union

    Unit of account is also an essential function of money. It is a standard monetary unit of the cost of goods and services. Currency is an important role in European business and trade. As goods and services is exchanged in return of money. The role of currency is important, as when inflation takes place other countries will be less attracted to export goods to your country. And this will make the purchase power less sustaining. And business will imply to move to other countries where the currency is strong. People also are unlikely to invest in a British bank when the currency declines.

    • Word count: 1449
  9. Free essay

    Finnish Party System

    The radicals were ultimately unsuccessful and fled to Russia where they founded the Finnish Communist Party. The moderates in the labor movement retained the Social Democratic label and continued to contest elections. The Communist Party and its organizations were banned. The traditional conservative parties of Finland, the Finnish Party and the Young Finns, also underwent political reorganization and merged into the National Coalition Party and the National Progressive Party, following the Civil War. The National Coalition favored a monarchy while the Progressives sought a republican style of government.

    • Word count: 1758
  10. The two world wars had the most significant impact on the development of European identity in the twentieth century.' Discuss

    Then throughout the renaissance the expansion of geographical knowledge of the world saw the rise in secular political ideology, and two important dates: the 1530s (Reformation); 1532 (Machiavelli's The Prince) saw the identity of Europeans alter as they looked at the Empire as an entity comprised of different states, rather than a singular religious empire. Cultural identity altered during the Enlightenment as Europe was seen as a pinnacle of civilisation; the first time the term 'European civilisation' was used was in 1766.

    • Word count: 1744
  11. Turkey's Accession to the EU Hindered by Human Rights Dilemma

    Turkish discrimination against Kurds and Armenians goes back to the Ottoman Empire when the Ottoman forces killed a large number of Kurds and Armenians. In 1915, the Kurds suffered greatly under the Turkish Ottoman rule ("Kurds"). Moreover, this discrimination continued until the 90's as the government fought the Kurdistan Workers Party and killed many Kurds forcing the remaining ones to leave Turkey. Until very recently broadcasting has only been in Turkish. However, the situation for the Kurds in Turkey has improved since then because it became to an extent legal for radio stations to broadcast in languages other than Turkish

    • Word count: 1514
  12. Evaluate the features of Toyota UK Burnaston

    Toyota has a strong relationship with its "just in time" suppliers enabling a very efficient system whereby parts for the next working 8 hour shift arrive 1/2 way in between the previous shift. This strengthens Toyota Burnaston as no large storage space is need because they only stock enough parts to keep the factory running for 8 hours. The quality that Toyota build into there cars is assured by the structured systems Toyota Burnaston have in place - Jidoka & kaizan.

    • Word count: 1931
  13. Success of New Imperialism

    Political disunity of the indigenous states did indeed play an important role in causing the successful European imperial expansion in Africa. States in Africa before the European expansion were often ruled by small groups of aristocratic elites. Succession crises and rotating leaderships often created political fractions amongst the people. Different groups of people, often with different ethnic or religious ties, were loyal to different leaders. This caused the Africans themselves to be unable to unite and resist the invaders. An example of this is conquest of Western Sudan by the French.

    • Word count: 1075
  14. Examine the extent to which membership of the European Union has affected the sovereignty of Parliament, and how does the European Court of Justice seek to enforce its powers?

    Another requirement for parliamentary sovereignty is that the current Parliament is able to change or repeal any previous legislation. In other words, no Parliament can bind its successor by passing a law that cannot be changed or reversed by a future Parliament. The European Communities Act 1972, which incorporates EU law into the UK legal system by accepting all EU Regulations and Decisions and by enabling Parliament to change UK law to realise EU Directives, can be said to have bound future Parliaments because of the political difficulties of extracting the UK from the EU especially in terms of legislation.

    • Word count: 1041
  15. Evaluate the likely changes to the structure of the principle EU institutions due to enlargement"

    The commission and the European Parliament were disappointed by the IGC and did not take on many of the proposals. The European Parliament was against the Treaty and therefore many member states did not offer their support, the Italian Parliament said they would not "ratify" without the Parliaments support, however in the end the treaty was passed by the Parliament. At the development of the European Union in 1952 it only had 6 member states, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Germany and the Netherlands.

    • Word count: 1683
  16. What evidence is there of the emergence of new forms of r****m within Europe?

    This question has allowed Far-right parties like the Front National in France and the Republican Party of Germany to raise the profile of immigration and to gain mainstream political backing. This raises the question of national identity. Smith outlines this to be a complex phenomenon with a number of inter-linked factors, which include, ethnic, cultural territorial and legal political (Smith; 1991). These he argues signify the "bonds of solidarity, which serve to bind together notions of a national community." This is the most common point of far-right parties across Europe who attempt to use the "us and them" argument to increase public notoriety and racial fear and hatred.

    • Word count: 1987

    Some of the major influence will be outlined below. The first public suggestions that the Old Poor Law was outdated and needed changing was not because of impact of systems or did not come from groups of people but rather from influential individuals who felt that the old system was the cause of poverty. One of the most famous radical philosopher of the time Jeremy Bentham felt that his principle of Utilitarianism "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" should be applied to the operation of the new law.

    • Word count: 1477
  18. Explain the main conditions which candidate countries have to meet in order to join the EU

    Other criteria necessary for candidate countries to meet with were laid down by the European Council in 1993, in Copenhagen, and are therefore called the Copenhagen Criteria. These are summarised in the following statement taken from the Copenhagen Presidency conclusions: "Membership requires that candidate country has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and, protection of minorities, the existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union.

    • Word count: 1105
  19. UK in the EU

    right of the monarch to make decisions affecting parliament, though this is rarely used, except in largely ceremonial matters. It is mainly used by ministers on behalf of the monarch. The 2 main basic principles involved in the British constitution are the ideas of 'The Rule of Law' and 'Parliamentary sovereignty'. The premise behind the 'rule of law' is that it is basic legal rules that effect a persons rights, they cannot be changed or removed by someone in authority just because they want to, everyone has the right to freedom from punishment, unless they have been found guilty of breaking the law and finally, everyone is equal before the law.

    • Word count: 1783
  20. The European Union (EU) has been enlarging its geographical borders in the last few years and it has been a challenge for the EU bodies to directly have an impact on the citizens of its member states

    A need for closer relationship with the EU and its citizens was first voiced in the Declaration of the Future of the Union (DFU) in Nice on December, 2000. It was further emphasised in the Laeken European Council and finally came in the form of a draft constitution. It makes it clear that European Integration is based on two kinds of legitimacy: the directly expressed will of the people, and the legitimacy of the national government. The EU affects and perhaps even shapes the interests and identities of the citizens of Europe, whilst in legitimacy terms it is still largely a derivative of the Member States.

    • Word count: 1273
  21. It is often said that the EU suffers from a democratic deficit".What is meant by this expression, and how does it relate to perceived inadequacies in the functioning of the EU's supranational institutions?

    However, the extent of its powers differs greatly between areas. The most important EU institutions include the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, the European Court of Justice, the European Central Bank and the European Parliament. It is said that the EU suffers from a democratic deficit. A democratic deficit is considered to be occuring when organisations or institutions are seen to be falling short of fulfilling the principles of democracy in their practices or operation.

    • Word count: 1091
  22. The European Union does already share a common culture in certain respect. With more and more countries wanting the benefits that the EU provides, a European culture surely is imminent

    Add to this the worry of their old traditions being lost and change in their opinion being forced upon them. In more provincial areas any minor change can be seen as quite radical and not welcomed by all. Even though this can be seen as a criticism of provincial areas it is still a culture shared by some communities and could quite easily be thought of as a shared culture. Culture does have good and bad points depending on your beliefs, so all elements do have to be considered.

    • Word count: 1184
  23. I have chosen to observe a group of thirteen to nineteen-year olds who regularly attend a Youth Club provision, at which I am currently a staff member. The group consists of a number of young people of both sexes

    of requiring extra support, not only from their peers but also from Youth Workers in the environment. The majority of members in this group are in an educational establishment and so the need to learn new skills does not seem, at this point, relevant to them, however, the staff do provide learning opportunities for the young people and this is done covertly, in that, young people are participating in recreational and fun activities which, at the end of, they are able to take away valuable information and new skills. I decided to observe the group covertly because I felt that if the group had realised that they were being observed, they would have behaved differently and I would not have been able to assess the group dynamics appropriately.

    • Word count: 1286
  24. Consequences of lack of self discipline:Here I am going to look at the police service and investigate how members of this service could bring the force to disrepute by not having sufficient self

    Members of the police force have a great responsibility with their job they have to make sure everything is done appropriately, to the best of their ability. One little mistake can cost far too much. Consequences affecting members of that public service: I shall now give an example of an incident which could have negative consequences upon members of the pubic service. Members of the police force are to work with each other as a team, if a police officer doesn't share al the information they have with the rest of the team it could result other police officers being injured and the investigation being negatively affected by this.

    • Word count: 1287
  25. The Hidden Dimensions of 'Cyber' Culture

    From all over the world, we are all brought together with one reason - our admiration for one actress. During the period of the group's existence, I have witnessed how it has evolved from specialized member relationships and formal discussions about Ms. Jolie, to multi-colored random conversations and warm concerns about each other. Forum sections, where users can talk about anything besides the actress, were created such as "General Discussions". Logging on to the forum wasn't just about Angelina Jolie anymore, but also that sense of intimate bonding began to emerge within. These people start to influence each other, where the status of "popular" group members shapes the roles played and the behaviors conformed within the group.

    • Word count: 1821

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Fishing in the EU maritime area is increasingly unsustainable." Discuss this statement with reference to the Common Fisheries Policy.

    "In conclusion to this statement I believe that unless drastic measures are taken, beyond the current measures which are being taken by the CFP I believe that fishing in the EU is becoming increasingly unsustainable to the extent that it may never recover. However with tight regulations introduced by the CFP, and a change in fishing techniques the industry may be able to achieve a harmony with the environment and once again become sustainable. Sources: Geography for A2 Clive Hart"

  • To what extent is European community law supreme in member states?

    "The European Union was developed so that there was a"united states of Europe" as stated by Winston Churchill. This was just after World War Two and its main purpose of a single governing state was to overcome any conflicts between member states and to eventually lead to a single member- Europe. To blossom this idea certain guideline and principles need to be in place this included the ideology that European Community law supremacy over national law. Even though supremacy was in place many conflict did crop up like the famous cases of Factotame, Marleasing and Frankovich but they all to come to the conclusion that European Community law is superior and only national law would be overridden. The pillars of European Community law- primacy and direct effect are very essential in delivering maintenance on European Community law supremacy, as without these pillars it would not be possible to keep this supremacy. So overall I would say European Community law is supreme in member states in a significant way."

  • The UN is an ineffective Peacekeeper. Discuss

    "In conclusion in the area of peacekeeping the UN has a record of abject failures -the worst of which being the genocide in Rwanda and failure to change the status of Somalia as a failed state- punctuated with a few marginal successes such as running East Timor as a protectorate and the successful monitoring of the ceasefire on the Iraq-Kuwait border. Also UN intervention is most successful when conflicts are between two states and there is a clear distinction between the party which the UN should support and that which it should oppose."

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