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AS and A Level: European Union
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- Marked by Teachers essays 8
There was realisation that major institutional change was necessary with the main purpose the elimination of the still existent barriers, extending the EC's competence and laying the foundation for the Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), therefore a legislative programme was proposed in the White Paper, which sought to identify the areas within EC where the problems existed and deal with them through a new approach known as mutual recognition and equivalence. According to Archer C. in The EU, p. 71, the widely circulated Cecchini Report showed that to maintain the barriers to the freedom of movement of goods, services, labour
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The treaty was seen as foundational in bringing together Europe in peace after the Second World War. Some of the main enemies during the war were now sharing production of coal and steel, one of the very resources which previously had been central to the war effort. How Tesco is Affected Tesco would be affected in a postive way as with the signing of the Treaty of Paris, Tesco would benefit from the free trade alliance and would also be able to benefit from the cheap steel prices means that Tesco would find it cheaper to build stores and depots, this means then that Tesco can then return the profits to the shareholders and the customers if they wish to do.
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To what extent has the European Union been successful in "establishing" a coherent European identity
(Parker, E 2003) Thus the EU firstly chooses to take efforts to effectively manage the EU economy. Apart from the single currency and Economic and Monetary Union (EMU), the greatest achievement in the EU history is the single market. It is about 15 years that the objective, which abolishing all physical, technical, and tax-related barriers to free movement put forward in 1985, was achieved. The aim of that is to improve industry and commerce within a larger economic area on a scale with the United State. (Europa(e)). First of all, there is no border any more. All borders controls within the EU on goods have been abolished, together with customs controls on people.
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the economic problems of the 1930's as well as the emphasizing the role that the US dollar should play in the global economy (Daniels and Lever, 1996:145). This essay will first attempt to define the two main institutions of the Bretton Woods system, namely the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank and then seek to examine both organisations and explain the various issues associated with them in terms of creating unhappiness amongst the developing world (Main focus on Africa).
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However, co-decision only applies to 50% of policy areas and while the EP has only three months to consider legislation in their second reading, and should they not complete the reading in time the Council's common position is adopted. Some could see this is as a punishment for the Parliament should they not bend to the will of the Council, or take too long to complete legislation readings, and the Council of Ministers can let legislation lapse after three months without such "punishment".
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Nevertheless, much to Disney management's surprise, Europeans failed to "go goofy" over Mickey. Neither attendance, nor consumer purchases were achieved during the early years: both were off by about 10%. By summer 1994 EuroDisney had lost some $900 million, and up to today, Disneyland Resort Paris is still not profitable. As a result, genuine consideration was given to closing the park. Then the Saudi prince Al-Walid bin Abdul-Aziz Al-Saud provided a essential cash injection ($500 million) that allowed for temporary financial restructuring and general reorganization, including a new French CEO and a new name, Paris Disneyland.
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A good example is the emergence of the democratically elected European Parliament as a key actor in European policy-making. 'The EU has moved beyond the realm of economic regulation into areas such as environmental and consumer protection, and health and safety issues. Although this expansion process was initially founded on a rather tenuous legal base, it has been ratified by successive Treaty changes: the Single European Act, and the Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties consolidated European intervention in the area of social or risk regulation'2.
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Account for the different political and public attitudes towards Turkey's application for EU membership.
For different reasons countries like Greece and Cyprus advocate support for full Turkish membership, but not until certain preconditions are met, such as Turkey's opening of its ports and airports to Cypriot shipping and airlines. The people of the EU countries are generally cautious of full Turkish membership as shown in the graph in Appendix 1. Only Hungary (51%) closely followed by the UK (46%), Portugal (43%) and Spain (42%) show substantial support for Turkish EU membership. The EU average supporting view is only 36%.
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To what extent does the experience of European integration confirm the conclusions of theory with regard to both the dynamic and static effects of customs unions? Outline the problems of empirically testing customs union theory.
Perhaps it is helpful to begin with some basis. At first, it is helpful to understand several questions. What is economic integration? What levels does it include? How important is customs union? The economic integration is a term describes how different aspects between economies are combined. There it is shown that if countries cooperate and set zero tariffs against each other, then both countries are likely to benefit relative to the case when both countries attempt to secure short-term advantages by setting optimal tariffs.
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Its main role 'is to debate policy and to make recommendations to the commission' (Drake,1994). The power the parliament has in the process of initiation of legislative can be quite important. Firstly the parliament sometimes has the power to participate 'in policy discussions with the commission at the pre-proposal legislative stage.' (Nugent, 2006). Committee members may propose policy initiatives themselves to the commission or alternatively the commission may put forward an area of policy before a European parliament committee. This means that on some occasions the European parliament has considerable influence over legislative decision making and implementation.
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These elections are held every 5 years and any registered E.U citizen is entitled to vote. As Parliament is elected democratically any legislation that is passed is therefore seen as representative of the people. The parliament supervises the other institutions within the E.U, the commission in particular. Parliament has the right to deny and reject any proposals, they also hold the "power of the purse". This power is shared with the Council and between the two allows them to influence the budget spending. One of the most widely known acts of the Parliament is to pass and deny legislation.
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The presidency of the council rotates on a six month basis, among the ministers of state. The current president of the council is Matti Vanhanen, who is a citizen of Finland. The last British president of the council was Jack Straw, a year ago. The benefit of the rotating presidency is that no nation alone controls the EU. There is also a Secretary-General of the Council. This is the head of the Council Secretariat, chosen by the member states by unanimity. Under the Maastricht treaty, which was the treaty that formalized the EU, the Council of the European Union has the following powers, and has the responsibility to do the following things.
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One of these reasons is that the Executive (the Council and the Commission) are not drawn from Parliament and are thus not accountable to it as they would be, for example, in the UK through a vote of no confidence. The two branches are completely separate, which can mean that with there is not an effective check. However Parliament is too weak to hold either executive to account meaning they can pass legislation without the consent of the Parliament, except when co-decision applies on matters pertaining to QMV in the Council of Ministers (for example, environmental policy is an 'EU competency').
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Will examine the effects membership of the European Union or EU has had on the British Constitution and Parliamentary Sovereignty and also the effect membership has had on policies and how the views of the two main political parties have changed
Parliament can make or unmake any law but only if it does not conflict with EU Regulations or Directives. In certain areas EU law does take priority over UK law. However, when Qualified Majority Voting1 (QMV) is expanded into areas that currently require unanimity2, the UK will in effect, lose the right of veto that unanimity currently allows. This will mean the UK may find itself having to execute laws it didn't necessarily want nor vote for; 2. Parliament cannot bind its successors. This was traditionally understood to mean that say a present Labour government could not pass legislation that would come into force when a Conservative government came into power.
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This information was communicated to the illiterate peasants through the public readings of the charges made against witches at the time of their execution, however they could not fully understand the sophisticated theories, nor were they likely to become as frightened as monks and theologians. These fears penetrated the underclasses through the preaching of priests and through the public executions of witches. An important point to note is that the great European witch-hunt could not have happened until the members of the ruling elites of European countries, especially those who controlled the judicial aspects, subscribed to the various beliefs regarding the activities of witches 3.
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Therefore for the most part, the governing institutions of the EC pillar have limited input in these pillars. The European Commission does much of the day-to-day work in the European Union and is the driving force in the Union's institutional system. Their main responsibility is to initiate and implement new programs, and they form a permanent executive that supervise the work of the EU, much in the way that a national cabinet operates. This power is displayed in article 211 of the Treaty Establishing the European Community, which states that, the Commission: 'Shall formulate recommendations or deliver opinions on matters dealt with in this treaty, if it expressly so provides or if the commission considers it necessary.'
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British consumers need not worry about eating imported foreign foods from the EU as they all have pretty much the same standards. Problems arise with the unemployment levels, as there are more businesses in every trade the less efficient firms tend to close down leaving the people who were employed in them unemployed. The admin costs are likely to be high as running a trade bloc incurs high costs and it can be quite slow as it takes time to respond to changing economic and political events.
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In 2000, "EU attempted to construct a basic framework for the future regulation of e-commerce" (Pappas 2003). The goal of this directive is to develop the internal market in the EU and harmonize the e-commerce by creating common laws defining the terms of contract at least for those EU countries. It is particularly hard to achieve in the EU because there are several different countries and each one has its own law and legislation. Contracting via internet involves some problems and issues such as the validity of a contract in the web, the e-signature, which jurisdiction and law may apply to you and the problem of the taxation.
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La mthode Monnet: What were the main driving forces behind the supranational integration of the Schuman Plan?
The Second World War was 'the most destructive conflict in human history... it caused the deaths of almost 60 million people2. Britain had been one of the chief powers in the Second World War, having declared war on Germany in 1939 with France. However after 1945 the continental countries of Europe were left in a state of devastation, whereas Britain did not suffer the consequences of the war in the same way. She was separated from the rest of Europe by water and despite suffering intense air raids; was never occupied by German troops.
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* Stabilise agricultural markets. * Guarantee regular supplies of food. * Ensure reasonable prices for consumers. (Dinan, Desmond 1994 pg 326) The Common Agricultural policy replaced the systems in each of the nation states and the "guiding principals were (and are) * A single market-agricultural produce should be able to move freely throughout the community. * Community preference- priority should be given to E.C produce over that of other countries. * Financial Solidarity- the cost of the policy should be borne by the community rather than by the individual member states" (Dinan, Desmond 1994 pg 326)
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They won't be motivated as others. In relation to our business we didn't have good communication in the team. Most of the members weren't motivated and didn't know what they were doing. An example was when we had meetings to discuss about the business. There was communication as the members opted the problems that occurred in our business. Our business was lacking communication, as there wasn't much work to do. Some of the members didn't know their roles and responsibilities. Lacking of communication meant that fewer members knew that we were in loss. The market researchers didn't find out that our posters were taken out.
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"Analyse and compare the gains predicted by economic theory from theremoval of (a) tariff barriers (b) non-tariff barriers wi
whose objective was to withdraw the French and German basic industries from the national authority and place them under a European High Authority. The sectoral limitations of the ECSC were felt to be a serious practical handicap and a greater integration was aimed at. This was achieved in 1958 when the European Community (EC) was created by the Treaty of Rome which commits its original member countries (Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands and Germany) in establishing a single market (also known as Common Market)
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is the CFSP more rhetoric than a reality. The CFSP was established as the second of the three pillars of the European Union in Maastricht (1992), the other two pillars being the European Community, and Justice and home affairs. The CFSP is based on a system of intergovernmentalism. This means that ...... Maastricht in 1993 was the first time that the CFSP become a working policy, but it has in fact been in formulation for the best part of sixty years.
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His lordship highlights the fact that the centrepiece of the defence's argument was the Doctrine of Implied Repeal2. The defence contended that the Weights and Measures Act 19853 repealed a section of the European Communities Act 19724 and therefore the later act took precedence over the earlier Act. The defence relied upon numerous cases in which implied repeal is substantiated and confirmed such as Vauxhall Estates Ltd v Liverpool Corporation5 and also in Ellen Street Estates Ltd v Minister of Health6. These two cases are heavily relied upon by the defence to establish the doctrine of implied repeal.
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The Commission plays an important part in the executive by being in charge of initiating EU policy, yet the 25 commissioners are appointed, and not elected. The have to be accepted by the European Parliament, an institution that has been directly elected, however the Parliament can only accept of reject the entire Commission, and not individual commissioners. Similarly, the Council of Ministers (a key element of the legislature) is not directly elected, although it is made up of elected representatives from the member states (although they have been elected for their role in the member state, and not as an EU representative for the country).
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