• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

AS and A Level: European Union

Browse by

Currently browsing by:

4 star+ (1)
3 star+ (1)

Meet our team of inspirational teachers

find out about the team

Get help from 80+ teachers and hundreds of thousands of student written documents

  • Marked by Teachers essays 8
  1. 1
  2. 2
  3. 3
  1. Marked by a teacher

    "'A troublesome partner.' Using examples, to what extent would you say this comment accurately describes the United Kingdom's membership of the EU since 1973"

    4 star(s)

    the notion that Britain is the EU's 'awkward partner,' per se, is the 'wait and see' approach with regard to the possibility of EMU. This non-committal policy creates many dilemmas. Firstly, it confuses prospective and current inward investors, (exemplified by car manufacturing) and the British public as a whole.4 Secondly, and perhaps more imporatantly, it brings about the question of the implementation of a 'two-speed' Europe with an 'inner core' of nations whose integration is accelerated. Further fudging of the issue will inevitably mean that Britain's voice in Europe in terms of shaping the Union's future monetary and fiscal policy is significantly diminished.4 If Britain's future is within the Euro, this policy is unquestionably harmful to Britain's future interests.

    • Word count: 3352
  2. The French Revolution

    They then began to work towards creating a constitution for the country under the rule of the National Assembly. This was to create a constitutional monarchy where the King had to share power with the National Assembly, although he still kept some of his main powers. This lasted for a while but led to more wars with Frances neighbouring countries. Whilst they were at war with Austria, insurgents managed to capture the King and Queen and declare the monarchy suspended. When the Imperial and Prussian armies asked for the re-instation of the monarch or attack, it seemed as though the King had been conspiring with the enemy and he was executed in 1793.

    • Word count: 3387
  3. Free essay

    Assymetric shocks

    Removing uncertainties about exchange rates and cutting out currency exchange costs have been but one of the reasons. Another element has been the belief that increased integration between the economies of the EU countries will create better conditions for achieving shared objectives such as a strong growth rate and high level of employment. Four political milestones - with intervals of about ten years - were needed to reach the final goal to create a single currency area in Europe: I. 1969 - The den Haag summit and the Werner Report: An expert group chaired by the Luxembourg's President and Finance Minister, Pierre Werner, presented the first commonly agreed blue print to create an economic and monetary union in three stages in October 1970, the Werner Report.1 II.

    • Word count: 4199
  4. Free essay

    Has British Politics been Europeanised

    Therefore, the sole reason for its composition was to resolve the key problems, which is to avoid further conflict in Europe, and the inability of France and Germany to live in harmony. Initially Britain was sceptical about joining the Union, as it set out minimum working conditions, and the Conservative Party at the time saw this as jeopardising "...British economic competitiveness, which was based on work flexibility and low wages."4 Furthermore, they argue that "...British industry and finance will be constrained by European regulations..."5 However, on the other hand "Labour agreed with other member states in interpreting the opt-out as

    • Word count: 3050
  5. To what extent was the fall of Olivares due to the Union of Arms?The cause of the Count Duke of Olivares' fall from power in 1643 has generally been seen to originate from the catastrophic effects of the Union

    He failed to see domestic affairs as anything more than a means to an end and "possessed a quixotic imperialism that belonged to the Golden Age of Charles V and Philip II"5 but only proved to complicate matters in the government of Philip IV. He was essentially trying unsuccessfully to balance "on one side the massed ranks of Spain's enemies moving into action, and on the other hand, a penniless King and a ramshackle Spanish monarchy"6 and despite all good intentions, was going about it unrealistically The scheme, which originated from his Great Memorial in 1625 intended "to curb provincial

    • Word count: 3803
  6. 'Economic Integration within the European Union: Have MNEs driven the Commission's decision to adopt the IFRS policy?'

    Grilli (1989) believes the two most evident barriers to economic integration to be: the different regulatory treatments of domestic and foreign assets thus, limiting cross-border movement of securities; and the discrimination against "nonresident agents and firms" due to the limitations on the activities they are allowed to partake on the national capital markets. Hence, by revising the standard on the treatment of assets and by having one accounting standard to adhere to when applying for a listing on a foreign capital market should overcome both of these barriers, therefore increasing economic integration across the EU.

    • Word count: 3711
  7. The EU's CFSP and the Iraq Crisis: A Catalyst for Change?

    EPC was an attempt to bridge that gap - promoting cooperation but protecting sovereignty. This is essentially the same dilemma that faces CFSP today. EU member states see the benefit of working as one, but in matters of war, each nation wants the final say. The case of the Iraq Crisis presents a scenario in which the weaknesses of CFSP were put on display. But before looking at the Iraq Crisis specifically, we will first look at the state of CFSP in the preceding decade, as the EU redefined its identity following the collapse of Communism.

    • Word count: 5157
  8. The Importance of the Cyprus Issue in terms of the Accomplishment of the ESDP

    This paper aims to highlight the roles played by the main actors involved in the current debate in terms of the establishment of a peaceful settlement in the island as well as the accomplishment of the European Security and Defence Policy. INTRODUCTION With the end of the Cold War, the European Union (EU) started to play an active role in the evolution of the Cyprus problem. Though the United Nations has remained as the main international platform for the parties to proceed with the inter-communal negotiation process, the EU has unavoidably entered into the picture as the main international body whose attitudes have significantly affected the negotiation positions of the parties.

    • Word count: 5555
  9. Transformation of the U.S. Hegemony in Europe through NATO after the Cold War

    Finally, we will argue that the U.S. enabling herself as the European power of the early 21st century successfully served her interests by actively involving with many of the European issues, while trying to maintain her hegemony in Europe. 1. Introduction What were the changing conditions with the end of the Cold War and how did this change effect the U.S. involvement within the European Security Architecture? What are the U.S. interests in this involvement, which will also prepare the settings to my theoretical framework stated as the main question "what has the U.S. done to maintain its security hegemony, which it established during the Cold War?"

    • Word count: 8975
  10. The EU automotive industry currently faces a number of issues. It lags behind the US and Japan in terms of productivity; labour productivity is currently 25% less than US and 30% less than Japan. However, labour costs are comparable

    Background In 1989, the Berlin Wall dividing East and West Germany fell. It marked the end of a divided Europe and the beginning of the collapse of communism in East and Central Europe, heralding the end of the Cold War. Throughout the Soviet bloc, reformers assumed power and ended over 40 years of dictatorial Communist rule. At first many companies were wary of operating in these countries; believing in the lingering effects of communism. They also believed that the workforce, with its ancient technology, would be unable to adapt to the modern world.

    • Word count: 3739
  11. What does citizenship mean in the European context?

    Free movement rights, originally different, are increasingly similar as a result of the European Convention on Human Rights [except in Greece, Spain and the UK] and, in the EU, this will become more so as the Amsterdam Treaty is implemented [except in relation to the UK and Ireland vis a vis the rest of the EU and, possibly Denmark]. Rights to social security are generally based on employment status or residence, not nationality, frequently covering both EU and non-EU nationals under reciprocal agreements such as those in the Nordic League and between Ireland and the UK.

    • Word count: 6481
  12. EU actorness in relation to Environment policy and Development policy: An evaluation.

    They believe that as the EU does not possess its own military or security policy it cannot claim to be a separate state, this can only be claimed by the member states individually. They also reject the idea of the EU being an actor as the member states of the EU still hold national sovereignty and do not answer to a higher entity except with regards to economic matters. European Union actorness It is thought by some that EU actorness is constructed through the interaction of three factors.

    • Word count: 3804
  13. The aim of this essay is to present the reason of British government changing it's mind about EEC membership. The United Kingdom became a member of the European Economic Community in January 1973

    In this context, a divided Western Europe quickly realised that the path to its survival lay in working together and establishing effective, common institutions, if necessary with American financial, technical and military support. They were times of great political instability accompanied by heightened social tensions, and innovative diplomatic solutions were urgently needed, even at regional level. The debate on the status of Germany, where, from 1961, the division of Berlin was the symbol in Europe of the Cold War between the two World Powers, together with the inexorable decline in their overseas territories, made Europe's dependence on external forces all the more striking.

    • Word count: 3062
  14. Critically discuss how global economic trend may impact upon the future policies of the European Union. Identify ways in which this may affect leisure and tourism trends within Europe.

    Also government intervention is considered as detrimental; hence every aspect of freedom is of fundamental importance. Moreover, liberal economic globalisation also has its own institutions: United Nations clearly plays a role in this, but the stars are the International Monetary Fund, the World Bank, and arguably the most important of all is the World Trade Organization(WTO). A typical liberal economic region is America, which is also the most prosperous nation enjoying the highest Gross Domestic Product(GDP) per capita(Sardar and Davies, 2003).

    • Word count: 4412
  15. Issues pertaining to the professional conduct of IT professionals

    and Electrical and Electronics Engineering (hereafter referred to as IEEE) have taken measures to tackle the issues of professionalism in IT. THE DIFFERENT ORGANISATIONS BCS organisation was established in 1957 to represent the interests of engineers who were primarily working in hardware development. Since than it has developed into a major institution, which represents over 38,000 members working in extremely different professions, be it a fresh IS graduate from university, a Project manager or a UML expert. Over the last 20 years, BCS has gained considerable influence over the government and the academics institutions of UK.

    • Word count: 4003
  16. Back ground information about the EU

    To promote throughout the community's a harmonious and balanced development of economic activities. Many trade barriers were removed, resulting in free trade and better economies. This idea also promoted peace between the countries since their economies were tied together. Both of these treaties were a good example of the gravitation towards internationalism that was happening in Europe after centuries of nationalism and imperialism. They also demonstrated an attempt at peace. The single European Act 1986 In 1985 the European Commission revealed that many barriers still existed.

    • Word count: 5343
  17. The Euro

    The final decision was made form there. The design that was chosen is based on the Greek letter Epsilon, and also resembles the "E" as the first alphabet of the word "Europe." The two parallel lines through the center of the "C" denote stability. The abbreviation for Euro is EUR. This was established through the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). DESIGNS OF BANK-NOTES The National Central Banks nominated designers and the competitors made their individual designs for the Seven Euro bank notes based on either the theme of "Ages and Styles of Europe" or a modern abstract theme.

    • Word count: 3893
  18. Regulation 2560/2001 on cross-border payments in Europe.

    In June 2002, Swedish authorities decided to extend to the Swedish Krona. It came into force for debit card payments and ATMs in July 2002 and for bank credit transfers in July 2003. In the beginning, the regulation's reach was restricted to payments of less than �12.500 and from July 2006, this maximum will be raised to �50.000. It is the purpose of this paper to clarify why and how this regulation has been implemented and what its consequences were to banks and to the economy as a whole. In pursuit of this goal, the paper first builds the case for the regulation and shows how the need for it built up.

    • Word count: 8339
  19. Critically analyse the role of NATO in post-Cold war Europe, with special emphasis of the significance of the two rounds of enlargement, including the similarities and differences between them.

    Alliance has a lot to change in the way it functions to protect the idea standing behind its birth. The Cold war was won by nations from within 'the grim block', by means of slow decomposition of totalitarian regime, preservation of the spirit of freedom, resistance of dissidents and popular movements like the Polish Solidarnosc or Czech Karta. But it would not be possible without NATO direct support. Washington Summit 1999 gave voice to NATO being most powerful alliance in history. A platform of cooperation with OSCE and Russia, instrument of peace process and stabilisation in Balkans joined America and Europe in mutual effort to uphold the world peace.

    • Word count: 3561
  20. The European Community and ECJ

    All these obstacles to free trade have been recognised by the Commission, which in its turn covered these issues with Art.23-29 and Art 90(ex Art. 9). Art. 23(1) (ex Art. 9(1)) is the fundamental provision of the Treaty establishing the Community's customs union as an integral part of the Common Market. "The Community shall be based upon a customs union which shall cover all trade in goods and which shall involve the prohibition between Member States of customs duties on imports and exports and of all charges having an equivalent effect and the adoption of a common customs tariff in their relation with third countries".

    • Word count: 4188
  21. Cyprus a new member of the European Union, a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of joining.

    The main sources of investigation My main sources for this project are journals, although I found some newspaper articles and a book. The most interesting Journal is the "Application of Cyprus to the European Union and the Cyprus Problem", which includes many ideas and arguments about Cyprus and the EU. Also another interesting journal, written by the former president of Cyprus, George Vasiliou, is the "Cypriot Accession to the EU and the Solution to the Cyprus Problem". 1.3. Aims of the Project The aims of this project are to give a general idea of Cyprus' recent history and the current situation, including the membership of the EU and the 'Cyprus problem'.

    • Word count: 4130
  22. Road freight transport - Paying its way?

    The other difficulty, once cost estimated, is to know in which way HGV will pay. Few methods already exist in EU, either directly on the vehicle or on road use but also through the Eurovignette. We will try, in a first part, to show the different damages caused by HGV, and in the second part, we will see different ways to charge HGV, on fuel and direct taxes, and in the final part we will see the illustration of the taxation in some European countries.

    • Word count: 3531
  23. E-Business Report: Suicide Girls

    Some key demographic information: - Approximately 500,000 visitors a week - 95% of visitors from within the 18-26 age range - More than half of site members are female (Kelly, 2004) [image002.jpg] 1.2 - Business Web: The business web concept is a recent development in academic theory and is born from the rapid expansion of e-business, which is driven primarily by rapid technological development in the computing industry since the late 1980s. According to Tapscott et al (2000) a business web is an electronic system that facilitates e-business.

    • Word count: 3017
  24. Smoking In The Workplace - The European Prospective

    Workers rights seem to be topping the agenda in many areas'3. Since 1986, the Europe against Cancer Program has supported projects that inform the public about the dangers of smoking. The Program also seeks to improve the health of its citizens by reducing the number of cases of cancer and other smoking related diseases4. Article 152 (ex Article 129) of the EC Treaty provides, inter alia, that: A high level of human health protection shall be ensured in the definition and implementation of all Community policies and activities. Community action, which shall complement national policies, shall be directed towards improving public health, preventing human illness and diseases, and obviating sources of danger to human health.

    • Word count: 3346
  25. "To what extent will the proposed EU constitution affect, the procedure for EU/EC negotiation and conclusion of international agreements"

    On the occasion that there is exclusive competence derogating from the Treaties to the Community, the latter only, can adopt and legislate acts that can be legally binding. On the other situation, which is the most common, the external powers of the Community are shared with the Member States rather than being exclusive; they can both make legally binding acts with the difference that the MS can exercise its competence only once the EU has decided to end its power of competence.

    • Word count: 3666

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • "Fishing in the EU maritime area is increasingly unsustainable." Discuss this statement with reference to the Common Fisheries Policy.

    "In conclusion to this statement I believe that unless drastic measures are taken, beyond the current measures which are being taken by the CFP I believe that fishing in the EU is becoming increasingly unsustainable to the extent that it may never recover. However with tight regulations introduced by the CFP, and a change in fishing techniques the industry may be able to achieve a harmony with the environment and once again become sustainable. Sources: Geography for A2 Clive Hart"

  • To what extent is European community law supreme in member states?

    "The European Union was developed so that there was a"united states of Europe" as stated by Winston Churchill. This was just after World War Two and its main purpose of a single governing state was to overcome any conflicts between member states and to eventually lead to a single member- Europe. To blossom this idea certain guideline and principles need to be in place this included the ideology that European Community law supremacy over national law. Even though supremacy was in place many conflict did crop up like the famous cases of Factotame, Marleasing and Frankovich but they all to come to the conclusion that European Community law is superior and only national law would be overridden. The pillars of European Community law- primacy and direct effect are very essential in delivering maintenance on European Community law supremacy, as without these pillars it would not be possible to keep this supremacy. So overall I would say European Community law is supreme in member states in a significant way."

  • The UN is an ineffective Peacekeeper. Discuss

    "In conclusion in the area of peacekeeping the UN has a record of abject failures -the worst of which being the genocide in Rwanda and failure to change the status of Somalia as a failed state- punctuated with a few marginal successes such as running East Timor as a protectorate and the successful monitoring of the ceasefire on the Iraq-Kuwait border. Also UN intervention is most successful when conflicts are between two states and there is a clear distinction between the party which the UN should support and that which it should oppose."

Marked by a teacher

This document has been marked by one of our great teachers. You can read the full teachers notes when you download the document.

Peer reviewed

This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student essay reviewing squad. Read the full review on the document page.

Peer reviewed

This document has been reviewed by one of our specialist student document reviewing squad. Read the full review under the document preview on this page.