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AS and A Level: European Union

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  1. This essay is intended to have an in-depth appraisal of the implication of the adoption of a constitution by the European Union (EU)

    Brief history This organisation which started as a convenient arrangement entered into to prevent the frequency of war between France and Germany. That had been at war four times during the three decades, and was just coming out of the Second World War. Therefore to prevent the frequency at which the Franco-Germane war was occurring, it was thought appropriate to develop a system that rivalry between the both countries. This idea was left to Jean Monet a French administrator and Robert Schuman the French foreign minister.

    • Word count: 5166
  2. Sustainable development or fish eat fish world? 'EU external trade policy'.

    * the integration of developing countries into the world economy and * the campaign against poverty in the developing countries; This paper will assess the relevance of these main objectives and principles of the EU in relation to the developing countries in the context of European external trade policies. Hereto the two main questions need to be answered: When the EC negotiate powerful new treaties regulating international trade and investment are the decisions really balanced and based on sustainable development?

    • Word count: 5149
  3. Is it possible and desirable to think of migration as a security issue in contemporary Europe? What are the political and conceptual problems associated with this?

    is still open. Therefore it is important to choose when the situation is still under control and problem lies mostly within creating on analytical framework. We still have some time to minimise the risk of global crisis. Buzan's2 analytical framework brought up the idea of securitisation - shifting the problem of migration from 'normal politics' arena to one of national security. It comes to this whenever regime decides to handle certain problems as a clear and present danger to one of vital parts of state's security (statehood, economy or national identity).

    • Word count: 3194
  4. An examination of British policy with regard to European Unity during the period 1945 to 1949: Why did Britain did Britain diverge from the emerging European Community and was it justified in doing so?

    Thus its is evident that Britain had shifted it's position of power in Europe utterly. Not only had Britain lost an opportunity to lead Europe, but following the Schuman doctrine "their place in future political developments" (Croft, 1988: 617). Thus is outlined the general sequence of events regarding British policy and its reaction to conceptions of European Unity. This period of policy was so important as it shaped and molded British/European relations to come. Indeed, abstaining from Europe during these years cited, had the considerable ramification of a belated entry to the European Economic Community; A community that Britain would not join until 1973 under the governance of Edward Heath.

    • Word count: 5831
  5. Effectiveness and Democratic Legitimacy: An Investigation of the European Democratic Deficit

    European governance can still be legitimate, only that the basis of democracy must be on output legitimacy. Citizen participation in the decision-making process must nonetheless be improved. Features of the Democratic Deficit European integration moved from negative to positive integration. It was initiated primarily for economic reasons concerned with the removal of barriers to the establishment of a common market for trade and undistorted competition. However, it soon became evident that a single market also required an entirely new system of economic regulation for intervention into policy areas that may not directly distort free trade, but nonetheless offer unfair advantages to some member states.

    • Word count: 3187
  6. The role of the EU on the Cyprus issue

    The Cyprus problem has always been of international concern since it was creating a very dangerous and heavily militarized environment in a highly risky geographical location; it was also a potential source of clash between two important allies of NATO (Greece and Turkey), that USA and other European powers didn't want to see in war - something like that would jeopardize the very existence of the organization and would destroy the security of the whole region. The Cyprus problem emerged as a European problem with the entrance of Greece in the Union in 1981.

    • Word count: 3071
  7. "The World We're In," by British author Will Hutton - A discussion of America and the EU.

    The white part of Europe is its more balanced perspective in both politics and economics. Its companies compete effectively in the world market, and yet European workers have relatively sane working hours, plus 4 weeks' vacation to boot. Europe of late has adopted a much more cooperative stance on the world stage than America, acting multilaterally and generally taking a more compassionate and accomodating view. In an interconnected world, the European attitude is surely more productive. No argument there, and Americans would do well to think about this soberly. The black parts of Europe get only passing mention.

    • Word count: 4960
  8. What are the changes contemplated under the ECMR. Compare and contrast them with the changes contemplated under the Enterprise Bill?

    This provided for more legal certainty, as this test had been in place for a long time and there was a well developed body of case law around it. Quite apart from this, various commentators were of the view that the SLC test would spur a very flexible interpretation, permitting the Commission to interfere in a wide variety of circumstances at the cost of legal certainty. As opposed to this, the "dominance" test, would, at the very least, prove to be a considerable check on the Commissions interventionist tendency.

    • Word count: 3108
  9. What do You Think are the Main Obstacles to a Coherent Common European Security and Defence Policy (CESDP)?

    Therefore there arise difficulties for the effectiveness and impact of EU policies. CFSP, and then ESDP, is driven by intergovernmental cooperation and has not adopted the qualified majority voting (QMV) in decision-making in the area of defence. Thus it means that the European Council's unanimous agreement to military and defence engagement is still central in the decision-making. It reflects 'the contradictions between the ambitions of EU member governments to play a larger international role and their reluctance to move beyond and intergovernmental framework in doing so' (Hill, 1996:5).

    • Word count: 3850
  10. This report encompasses six aspects of organizational behavior, that is team building, communication, culture, leadership, objectives and setting goals.

    If followed closely, this will deliver the desired level of performance and the team rewards that go with it. Effective communications lies in the heart of every successful team. It provides a channel for all members to express their feelings, facts and opinions. No matter how good a team is at managing, leading, listening, without effective communication, the team is bound to fail. In the team, all members must have identified goals and objectives. In fact, those goals and objectives will act as a guide for all team members and let them know what direction to head as a team.

    • Word count: 3492
  11. Can the euro challenge the dollar as the world's international currency?

    I have tried my best to finish this assignment, however, it still has some weaknesses. Chapter One Introduction of the Euro History of the euro The two people who did most to create the euro were former Chancellor Helmut Kohl of Germany and the late President Francois Mitterrand of France. Kohl and Mitterrand believed passionately that a single currency would unite the countries of Europe so closely that they could never go to war again as they did in 1914-1918 and 1939-1945. They championed the single currency as the next great step forward for Europe once it had completed the 1992 'single market' project, which eliminated most barriers to free movement of people, goods and money across the European Union.

    • Word count: 3742
  12. Discuss the suggestion that ''Britishness' is a story whose final chapter has been written.'

    Religion is no longer the grand meta-narrative that it once was. Many factors have contributed to this release, most notably the enlightenment which 'aimed at human emancipation from myth, superstition and enthralled enchantment to mysterious powers and forces of nature through the progressive operations of a critical reason' (Doherty, 1993:5) In present times critical reason has been accelerated by the growth in technology and a greater access to information, thus providing individuals with more choice of how to consume and structure their own identity than the limited options which epitomised 17th century Britain.

    • Word count: 3409
  13. Critically evaluate the notion that the EU is controlled by a host of unelected and unaccountable bureaucrats.

    There are five main institutions in the EU, the European Council, the Court of Auditors, European Parliament, European Commission and the European Court of Justice. There are also other institutions which support these including the European Central Bank and the Council of Ministers. The European Council holds summit meetings, usually twice a year to discuss issues such as policy direction, treaties and other general issues. It is intergovernmental in design and so not all the member states need to sign a treaty, for example Britain and Ireland did not sign the Amsterdam treaty 1997.

    • Word count: 3014
  14. European Single Currency.

    8 of the 11 countries joining the Euro and it has set up groups to assess the impact on trading in the Euro, they are also assessing how the euro will affect the 3 further countries which were in the EU but not joining the Euro. Euro Facts * Euroland: The eurozone, or Euroland as its called, is huge. Its 11 members are Austria, Belgium, Finland, France, Germany, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Spain and Portugal and it has a population of 290 million inhabitants.

    • Word count: 3607
  15. The Euro.

    Confusingly, the use of E and e also has particular connotations in computer software applications. Hence, 100 euro may be written as 100, 100 euro, euro100, EUR100, e100 or E100 depending on the circumstances. If you cannot see the euro symbol here > � < then you will need to download a euro font for windows. When will the euro be introduced? The euro will become a currency in its own right on 1 January 1999. However, euro banknotes and coins will not be issued until 1 January 2002. How will I notice the existence of the euro in 1999?

    • Word count: 4490
  16. European Union Lobbying.

    at the minute to cap the number of MEPs at 700, so clearly the existing countries' representation will have to be decreased - for instance, Ireland has 15 MEPs at the minute but this will eventually fall to perhaps 11 or 12.) While the Parliament does engage in general debates in the Chamber, much of its detailed policy work in undertaken in committees. The Parliament has 19 major standing committees which are responsible for initiating policy proposals and for providing the first scrutiny of proposals which emerge from the Commission.

    • Word count: 5581
  17. Examine the reasons for the different attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.

    In the meantime, Nordic cooperation across several policy areas had progressed considerably. After having been rejected by the EC for the second time, then, the Danes initiated a further strengthening of the Nordic alternative by proposing the erection of a Nordic economic corporation regime (NORDOK). Events in the wider European context soon put an end to this initiative. The EC now welcomed new applications for membership, and Denmark and Norway also this time followed the UK in their third attempt.

    • Word count: 3893
  18. Why is Britain hesitating about membership of EMU and what are the main issues?

    Thus, in the first three weeks of July in 1944 (as the war came to a close), delegates of 45 countries met to draw up an agreement to restructure Europe and create the foundations to a new "user friendly" world atmosphere.2 What emerged was the Bretton Woods Agreement, which set up for the first time in history, almost universal institutions - the International Monetary Fund (IMF); the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD); and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).

    • Word count: 4558
  19. The Management of Global Crisis.

    someone expectations, was the very core of humanity: Yet to conform to custom merely as a custom, does not educate or develop in him any of the qualities which are the distinctive endowment of human being. The human facilities of perception, judgement, discriminative feeling, mental activity, and even moral preference, are exercised only in making a choice. (Mill 1991:65) Someone may argue that the liberal perspective maximized the individual liberty of acting, to an anarchic system's extend. That is why a primary purpose of the liberal state is to design a place in which individual autonomy is exercised without adversely affecting the autonomy of the others.

    • Word count: 4486
  20. Austria - An economic and political overview.

    Austria and World War II The WWII is a black chapter in Austria's history. There is always the fact that Adolf Hitler was of Austrian nationality, but more importantly Austria found unification with Germany on a voluntary basis, known as the 'Anschluss'. To provide a legal cober for the Anschluss, Hitler arranged a referendum for April 10, 1938. This referendum was based on pan-Germanism and had an almost total support from the Austrian citizens, although the outcome was undoubtedly influenced by Nazi intimidation.

    • Word count: 8541
  21. Discuss and evaluate the statement that a 'multi-speed' Europe exists and that it would be essential for embracing an enlarged European Union.

    and the collapse of the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). Such things have not stopped other European Members from applying to join the EU and Membership is set to grow from 15 to 25 in 2004. The 1999 Treaty of Amsterdam and the Treaty of Nice 2000 have both emphasised institutional reforms to facilitate enlargement, and the integration at different levels. However there are huge economic and political variations between the richer 'core' Members (France, Germany and the Benelux countries) and the new Member states, and this will inevitably make the task of integration a lot more challenging, maybe impossible.

    • Word count: 3829
  22. Is Europe a Bargaining Forum?

    The concept of the state used here is mainly a political one, and it may be defined as the central government controlling a delimited territory and its population; its most prominent features being its sovereign status, autonomy, and functions of guaranteeing the security and welfare of the population, as well as representing the national interest vis-�-vis other states and actors. State sovereignty refers to the exclusive right of the state to exert control over its own territory and population, and state autonomy can be understood as the ability to pursue policies consistent with its national interest.

    • Word count: 4775
  23. In what ways does the new European Union legal order differ from the common law jurisdiction? To what extent do you think the machinery of the new legal order is effective in achieving its objectives?

    The case of Costa v. ENEL (1964)4 elaborated on this new legal order. The new legal order of the EU is not only supreme to national legislative provisions, but also national constitutions; Internationale Handelsgesellschaft (1970)5. The ECJ have also made it clear that the supremacy of EU law affects legislation enacted both before and after becoming a member state; Simmenthal (1978)6. Courts of Member States are also obliged to ignore conflicting national law and rule according to EU legislation; Factortame (1990)7. If governments act in breach of EU law they will be liable for financial loss suffered as a result of said breach; Factortame (No.4)

    • Word count: 3304
  24. Listed below are the main results obtained from the marketing research study. Contained in this is a summative list of the important findings for quick reference ability.

    The chosen 8 countries are Andorra, Belgium, France, Germany, Luxembourg, the Netherlands, Portugal and Spain. All of these countries are in Europe and all except one are official E.U. members with the one exception of Andorra who still enjoy the luxury of no trade barriers. They all have strong economies and have unemployment rate of 16% or under. They also all have a literacy level of at least 87%. A few of the small countries are completely landlocked and therefore have no fishing industry of their own and are mainly dependant upon imported foods such as fish or fish products.

    • Word count: 6759
  25. Monetary union will have both positive and negative effects on business, this assignment sets out to explain and explore the economic and political issues surrounding EMU and their effect on a UK business.

    EMU would create a currency, the euro, which would equal the US Dollar in the size of the economic area it represents and would have the economic weight to add stability to the global economy. The best way to achieve these things is to have a single currency for Europe 1.2 History The end of the second world war brought enormous change to Europe and made people realise the terrible price of the traditional linguistic, religious and political rivalries that have existed on the continent for centuries.

    • Word count: 4086

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