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AS and A Level: European Union

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  1. The Institution of the European Union and Theories.

    Today the single market is home to around 360 million consumers and a firm can make huge profits as of this. The single market also allows countries to specialise in domestic products, e.g. France is good at making cheese and wine so they specialise in these and sell to the rest of Europe, would. This gives the French an advantage with its products and helps economic growth. Specialisation Some countries will benefit of this as they specialise in certain products or services.

    • Word count: 11132
  2. An assessement of the impact of the lawyers' establishment directive.

    Due to the fact that little, if any, information is available with respect to the Directive's market effect on consumers, this essay will, by necessity, confine its analysis to the overall market effect on lawyers and law firms. In the next section, an overview is provided regarding the historical development of, and legal basis for, the Directive itself. The second section endeavours to analyse Directive 98/5/EC relative to its scope and of its requirements. In the third section, an examination of the economic effect of the Directive is proffered, both in theoretical and statistical terms.

    • Word count: 6988
  3. Organisations compatition and the environment - The European Context.

    And how the expansion of Manchester Airport has impacted on TD Travel Group and the local economy. Section 2 - Exploring the significance of the European dimension for UK-based organisations This section of the report will explain the features and policies of the European Union, again analysing the impact of such policies on TD Travel Group. The report will also look in detail at the European monetary union, giving arguments for and against UK entry and the implications within TD Travel Group. It will also analyse the challenges and opportunities to UK businesses of enlargement of EU member states. 3.

    • Word count: 3554
  4. In 1957 The Treaty of Rome came into existence it declared a common European market as a European objective with the aim of increasing economic prosperity and contributing to "an ever closer union among the peoples of Europe".

    The Single European Act (1986) and the Treaty on European Union (1992) have built on this, introducing an Economic and Monetary Union (EMU) and laying the foundations for a single currency. In 1992 the Maastricht treaty was created as an addition to the Treaty of Rome This initiated the idea of a single European currency to 'ensure more equal trade, common citizenship, common foreign and security policy, a more effective European Parliament, and a common labour policy that offers the EU an opportunity to become a political and economic world superpower.'

    • Word count: 4449
  5. An Analysis of the Powers of the European Parliament.

    The Treaty of Nice provides that the allocation can be reweighed from 2004 to accommodate new Member States without increasing the number of MEPs beyond 732. The size of the European Parliament has increased so has its powers. Originally, the EP was conceived as little more than a consultative assembly with limited scope in certain areas, however it has gained significant new powers and responsibilities with the signing of the Single European Act in 1986, the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 and the Treaty of Amsterdam in 1996.

    • Word count: 3606
  6. Why did Britain join the EEC in 1973 and not in 1957?

    The reasons behind Britain's absence at the Schuman Plan talks have been summarised by Edmund Dell, a Labour MP. He described how the ministers and officials did not recognise the prospects of joining the EEC at the beginning. They should have supported the drive towards integration, although they did not agree with the idea of a supra-nationality they could have gone along with it as a rapprochement with France and West Germany. Also Dell explained that the officials should have sold the idea of 'Europe' to the public to gain their support for joining the EEC. Dell also puts forward the idea that France at this time, did want Britain to become involved, Jean Monet frequently phoned to ask Britain to join the talks, also the French ambassador Rene Massigli was also pro-British.

    • Word count: 3405
  7. "The UK has consistently held back European integration and as such, held back European business"

    As a direct result of their efforts, the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) was established by the Treaty of Paris in 1951, with Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg also included. Monnet and Schuman had sown the seed from which political integration in Europe was to grow. The success of the ECSC led its members to sign the Rome Treaties in 1957 and thereby form the European Economic Community (EEC), which would remove barriers to trade and services. The EEC generally known as the common market, later became known as the European Community (EC).

    • Word count: 3755
  8. Collection Management

    Supermarkets, newsagents and even petrol stations are causing an increasingly competitive market resulting in consumer book sales rising by approximately one-quarter in the last ten years.4 Visits to libraries have been falling steadily at the rate of 2% year on year since 1993/94,5 which, as they point out, would take only 20 years for this figure to reach zero. Libraries will need to act swiftly if they are to reverse this trend and avoid disaffecting new generations of potential users.

    • Word count: 4015
  9. MM02 - How the European market affects the way a firm is willing to operate as a business.

    BT Cellnet then suffered a dip in sales so to combat this; they felt they needed a new image. Then in the summer of 2001, BT changed the image and the name of their mobile phones- mmO2. mmO2 completed a de-merger from British Telecommunications plc on 19 November 2001. As a result of this de-merger, mmO2 plc operates its operations as an independent entity with key subsidiaries in the UK, Germany, the Netherlands, Ireland and the Isle of Man. mmO2 plc is listed in the London and New York stock exchanges.

    • Word count: 6812
  10. Ever Closer Union

    France, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and the UK sign the Brussels Treaty agreeing on military assistance, economic, social and cultural cooperation. A year later the same countries set up the Council of Europe - a forum for all European countries to discuss informal co-operation. 1951: The first step: Schuman's vision France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, Luxembourg and the Netherlands - sign the Treaty of Paris establishing the European Coal and Steel Community which comes into force in 1954. This treaty is based on French Foreign Minister Robert Schuman's 1950 declaration that coal and steel resources should be pooled to avoid European countries preventing war on each another.

    • Word count: 3873
  11. Czech Republic: What potential benefits and losses are there for this country if it gains EU membership?

    After nearly fifty years, with four waves of accessions, the EU today has fifteen member states and is currently preparing for its fifth enlargement....2 However, the above definition does not reveal exactly what functions the European Union undertakes. The mission objectives of the EU include: promoting economic and social progress, to assert the identity of the EU on the international scene, to introduce European citizenship and to develop an area of freedom, security and justice. Therefore, I now find myself asking this question: What does the Czech Republic have to gain from joining the international scene, adopting European citizenship, becoming part of an area of freedom, security and justice and becoming a target for economic and social progress?

    • Word count: 3866
  12. The Enlargement of the European Union

    The origins of enlargement go back to the beginning of the Union, when Jean Monnet pioneered the idea of European integration in the early 1950's.The first ever enlargement of the EU took place in 1973 when Ireland, Denmark and the United Kingdom joined the original six EEC states. Greece was then awarded membership in 1981, followed by Portugal and Spain in 1986 and finally Austria, Finland and Sweden in 1995.The most recent enlargement brought the total and present membership to fifteen states.

    • Word count: 3771
  13. How Member States can derogate from the trading conditions governed by European Community (EC) rules

    closely scrutinised and restrictively interpreted.13 Indeed Article 30 warns that, "[s]uch prohibitions shall not, however, constitute a means of arbitrary discrimination or a disguised restriction on trade between Member States." This is an approach the Court of Justice will adopt in regard to derogations generally.14 * Protection of animals and plants The Crayfish15 case concerned German legislation prohibiting the importation of live crayfish due to fears that disease might befall the indigenous crayfish population, as well as anxieties that plant life might be adversely affected.

    • Word count: 4325
  14. The Foreign Policy of Great Britain in relationship to the European Union.

    In the 1960s Britain applied twice to join the Community. However French leader Charles de Gaulle, maybe fearing American interference as Britain went in, vetoed British accession. However in 1969, after De Gaulle's resignation, the Labour Government applied again. Negotiations were completed by the following Conservative Government, and in 1973 Britain joined the Community. However the story does not stop here. Britain has been frequently accused of 'braking' the pace of the integration process. The failure of the British to embrace the ideals of European Union has continually led to differences with other Member states.

    • Word count: 4541

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