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AS and A Level: European Union
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Removing uncertainties about exchange rates and cutting out currency exchange costs have been but one of the reasons. Another element has been the belief that increased integration between the economies of the EU countries will create better conditions for achieving shared objectives such as a strong growth rate and high level of employment. Four political milestones - with intervals of about ten years - were needed to reach the final goal to create a single currency area in Europe: I. 1969 - The den Haag summit and the Werner Report: An expert group chaired by the Luxembourg's President and Finance Minister, Pierre Werner, presented the first commonly agreed blue print to create an economic and monetary union in three stages in October 1970, the Werner Report.1 II.
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Nevertheless, much to Disney management's surprise, Europeans failed to "go goofy" over Mickey. Neither attendance, nor consumer purchases were achieved during the early years: both were off by about 10%. By summer 1994 EuroDisney had lost some $900 million, and up to today, Disneyland Resort Paris is still not profitable. As a result, genuine consideration was given to closing the park. Then the Saudi prince Al-Walid bin Abdul-Aziz Al-Saud provided a essential cash injection ($500 million) that allowed for temporary financial restructuring and general reorganization, including a new French CEO and a new name, Paris Disneyland.
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Looking inside the EU there are many institutions the main ones are the European council which has 25 head of state or government, European Parliament which has 25 members and European commission which has 25 commissions. Each of the European Union institutions has a responsibility and each have a right to speak out words from their own country. This is the European Union's most powerful decision-making body. It is made up of the foreign ministers of member states. Other ministers from member states may have an input in topics relevant to their expertise.
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Therefore, the sole reason for its composition was to resolve the key problems, which is to avoid further conflict in Europe, and the inability of France and Germany to live in harmony. Initially Britain was sceptical about joining the Union, as it set out minimum working conditions, and the Conservative Party at the time saw this as jeopardising "...British economic competitiveness, which was based on work flexibility and low wages."4 Furthermore, they argue that "...British industry and finance will be constrained by European regulations..."5 However, on the other hand "Labour agreed with other member states in interpreting the opt-out as
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Toyota has a strong relationship with its "just in time" suppliers enabling a very efficient system whereby parts for the next working 8 hour shift arrive 1/2 way in between the previous shift. This strengthens Toyota Burnaston as no large storage space is need because they only stock enough parts to keep the factory running for 8 hours. The quality that Toyota build into there cars is assured by the structured systems Toyota Burnaston have in place - Jidoka & kaizan.
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A good example is the emergence of the democratically elected European Parliament as a key actor in European policy-making. 'The EU has moved beyond the realm of economic regulation into areas such as environmental and consumer protection, and health and safety issues. Although this expansion process was initially founded on a rather tenuous legal base, it has been ratified by successive Treaty changes: the Single European Act, and the Maastricht and Amsterdam Treaties consolidated European intervention in the area of social or risk regulation'2.
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Political disunity of the indigenous states did indeed play an important role in causing the successful European imperial expansion in Africa. States in Africa before the European expansion were often ruled by small groups of aristocratic elites. Succession crises and rotating leaderships often created political fractions amongst the people. Different groups of people, often with different ethnic or religious ties, were loyal to different leaders. This caused the Africans themselves to be unable to unite and resist the invaders. An example of this is conquest of Western Sudan by the French.
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Examine the extent to which membership of the European Union has affected the sovereignty of Parliament, and how does the European Court of Justice seek to enforce its powers?
Another requirement for parliamentary sovereignty is that the current Parliament is able to change or repeal any previous legislation. In other words, no Parliament can bind its successor by passing a law that cannot be changed or reversed by a future Parliament. The European Communities Act 1972, which incorporates EU law into the UK legal system by accepting all EU Regulations and Decisions and by enabling Parliament to change UK law to realise EU Directives, can be said to have bound future Parliaments because of the political difficulties of extracting the UK from the EU especially in terms of legislation.
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What are the distinctions between Regulations, Directives and Decisions in the Law of the European Union?
This is a general measure that is binding in all its parts and is also directly applicable. In other words, it creates law which takes immediate effect in all the Member States in the same way that an Act of Parliament will take effect in the UK, without any further legislation needing to be created. Examples of regulations include those determining rights of workers, the new '.eu' domain name and the new 'Community Design Right' which confers rights to intellectual property. A Directive, by contrast, is binding upon Member States as to the result to be achieved but it leaves it up to the Member State to decide the form and method to be adopted to realise the Community objectives within that country.
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Account for the different political and public attitudes towards Turkey's application for EU membership.
For different reasons countries like Greece and Cyprus advocate support for full Turkish membership, but not until certain preconditions are met, such as Turkey's opening of its ports and airports to Cypriot shipping and airlines. The people of the EU countries are generally cautious of full Turkish membership as shown in the graph in Appendix 1. Only Hungary (51%) closely followed by the UK (46%), Portugal (43%) and Spain (42%) show substantial support for Turkish EU membership. The EU average supporting view is only 36%.
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The commission and the European Parliament were disappointed by the IGC and did not take on many of the proposals. The European Parliament was against the Treaty and therefore many member states did not offer their support, the Italian Parliament said they would not "ratify" without the Parliaments support, however in the end the treaty was passed by the Parliament. At the development of the European Union in 1952 it only had 6 member states, Belgium, France, Italy, Luxembourg, Germany and the Netherlands.
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To what extent does the experience of European integration confirm the conclusions of theory with regard to both the dynamic and static effects of customs unions? Outline the problems of empirically testing customs union theory.
Perhaps it is helpful to begin with some basis. At first, it is helpful to understand several questions. What is economic integration? What levels does it include? How important is customs union? The economic integration is a term describes how different aspects between economies are combined. There it is shown that if countries cooperate and set zero tariffs against each other, then both countries are likely to benefit relative to the case when both countries attempt to secure short-term advantages by setting optimal tariffs.
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Its main role 'is to debate policy and to make recommendations to the commission' (Drake,1994). The power the parliament has in the process of initiation of legislative can be quite important. Firstly the parliament sometimes has the power to participate 'in policy discussions with the commission at the pre-proposal legislative stage.' (Nugent, 2006). Committee members may propose policy initiatives themselves to the commission or alternatively the commission may put forward an area of policy before a European parliament committee. This means that on some occasions the European parliament has considerable influence over legislative decision making and implementation.
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These elections are held every 5 years and any registered E.U citizen is entitled to vote. As Parliament is elected democratically any legislation that is passed is therefore seen as representative of the people. The parliament supervises the other institutions within the E.U, the commission in particular. Parliament has the right to deny and reject any proposals, they also hold the "power of the purse". This power is shared with the Council and between the two allows them to influence the budget spending. One of the most widely known acts of the Parliament is to pass and deny legislation.
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This question has allowed Far-right parties like the Front National in France and the Republican Party of Germany to raise the profile of immigration and to gain mainstream political backing. This raises the question of national identity. Smith outlines this to be a complex phenomenon with a number of inter-linked factors, which include, ethnic, cultural territorial and legal political (Smith; 1991). These he argues signify the "bonds of solidarity, which serve to bind together notions of a national community." This is the most common point of far-right parties across Europe who attempt to use the "us and them" argument to increase public notoriety and racial fear and hatred.
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The presidency of the council rotates on a six month basis, among the ministers of state. The current president of the council is Matti Vanhanen, who is a citizen of Finland. The last British president of the council was Jack Straw, a year ago. The benefit of the rotating presidency is that no nation alone controls the EU. There is also a Secretary-General of the Council. This is the head of the Council Secretariat, chosen by the member states by unanimity. Under the Maastricht treaty, which was the treaty that formalized the EU, the Council of the European Union has the following powers, and has the responsibility to do the following things.
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WAS THE ROYAL COMMISSION OF 1832-1834 THE MOST IMPORTANT INFLUENCE ON THE TERMS OF THE NEW POOR LAW OF 1834? EXPLAIN YOUR ANSWER
Some of the major influence will be outlined below. The first public suggestions that the Old Poor Law was outdated and needed changing was not because of impact of systems or did not come from groups of people but rather from influential individuals who felt that the old system was the cause of poverty. One of the most famous radical philosopher of the time Jeremy Bentham felt that his principle of Utilitarianism "the greatest happiness for the greatest number" should be applied to the operation of the new law.
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One of these reasons is that the Executive (the Council and the Commission) are not drawn from Parliament and are thus not accountable to it as they would be, for example, in the UK through a vote of no confidence. The two branches are completely separate, which can mean that with there is not an effective check. However Parliament is too weak to hold either executive to account meaning they can pass legislation without the consent of the Parliament, except when co-decision applies on matters pertaining to QMV in the Council of Ministers (for example, environmental policy is an 'EU competency').
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Other criteria necessary for candidate countries to meet with were laid down by the European Council in 1993, in Copenhagen, and are therefore called the Copenhagen Criteria. These are summarised in the following statement taken from the Copenhagen Presidency conclusions: "Membership requires that candidate country has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy, the rule of law, human rights and respect for and, protection of minorities, the existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope with competitive pressure and market forces within the Union.
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The European Court of Justice is composed of 8 advocates general and 15 judges. One judge representing each country member of the European Union. All members of the court are appointed for renewable six-year terms by agreement among the EU nations. The court interprets EU treaties and legislation and ultimately its decisions overrule those of national courts, courts have the benefit of the ECJ's opinion before passing judgment In the case of Marshall v Southampton area health Authority, Mrs.
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right of the monarch to make decisions affecting parliament, though this is rarely used, except in largely ceremonial matters. It is mainly used by ministers on behalf of the monarch. The 2 main basic principles involved in the British constitution are the ideas of 'The Rule of Law' and 'Parliamentary sovereignty'. The premise behind the 'rule of law' is that it is basic legal rules that effect a persons rights, they cannot be changed or removed by someone in authority just because they want to, everyone has the right to freedom from punishment, unless they have been found guilty of breaking the law and finally, everyone is equal before the law.
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This represents an imperfection in a potentially competitive market Relatively low rates of corporation tax in Eastern European countries give them an unfair advantage in terms of attracting foreign direct investment. This encourages the practice of 'fiscal dumping', and invites the distrust of countries which use tax competition for attracting FDI. Eastern Europe has attracted �140bn FDI since 1990, and this is set to increase quite markedly following the entry into the EU of countries such as Poland and the Czech Republic in 2004.
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The European Union (EU) has been enlarging its geographical borders in the last few years and it has been a challenge for the EU bodies to directly have an impact on the citizens of its member states
A need for closer relationship with the EU and its citizens was first voiced in the Declaration of the Future of the Union (DFU) in Nice on December, 2000. It was further emphasised in the Laeken European Council and finally came in the form of a draft constitution. It makes it clear that European Integration is based on two kinds of legitimacy: the directly expressed will of the people, and the legitimacy of the national government. The EU affects and perhaps even shapes the interests and identities of the citizens of Europe, whilst in legitimacy terms it is still largely a derivative of the Member States.
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His defensive strategy meant that the South was fighting mostly on their own land which was easier than fighting on the Union land because of the relief of its land. He was also able to have victories at Second Manassas, Fredericksburg and Chancellorsville. The Confederacy had a good chance of winning if it was not for the equally skilled leader, Grant. Grant was responsible for the turning point at the Battle of Vicksburg which was a massive Union victory and enabled the North to use the Mississippi River as a National highway to transport troops and supplies to military forces.
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To what extent was the fall of Olivares due to the Union of Arms?The cause of the Count Duke of Olivares' fall from power in 1643 has generally been seen to originate from the catastrophic effects of the Union
He failed to see domestic affairs as anything more than a means to an end and "possessed a quixotic imperialism that belonged to the Golden Age of Charles V and Philip II"5 but only proved to complicate matters in the government of Philip IV. He was essentially trying unsuccessfully to balance "on one side the massed ranks of Spain's enemies moving into action, and on the other hand, a penniless King and a ramshackle Spanish monarchy"6 and despite all good intentions, was going about it unrealistically The scheme, which originated from his Great Memorial in 1625 intended "to curb provincial
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