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AS and A Level: European Union

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  1. It is often said that the EU suffers from a democratic deficit".What is meant by this expression, and how does it relate to perceived inadequacies in the functioning of the EU's supranational institutions?

    However, the extent of its powers differs greatly between areas. The most important EU institutions include the Council of the European Union, the European Commission, the European Court of Justice, the European Central Bank and the European Parliament. It is said that the EU suffers from a democratic deficit. A democratic deficit is considered to be occuring when organisations or institutions are seen to be falling short of fulfilling the principles of democracy in their practices or operation.

    • Word count: 1091
  2. EU Working Language

    Culture has been a great pride to Europeans and a large portion of culture is language itself. One language brings about the idea of it being superior than others; it may also bring European diversity to an cataclysmic end. If English was to be introduced as a working language fewer people may be inclined to learn German, French or Spanish, which are commonly popular choices as a second language in schools across the globe. If a choice is taken for a single language to be chosen, that is the end of Europe as we know it. Although, there are a number of practical problems posed with the current language policy, the introduction of a single language poses an even larger one.

    • Word count: 818
  3. Assess the effects of imperialism on European countries during the later years of the nineteenth century

    As living standards rose, so too did the demand for new goods and services. The European nations believed if population was increase at its present rate, there would be a point in time where they would not be able to support themselves economically. Industry-orientated countries, especially Britain had long begun running an unfavourable balance of trade, which was increasingly offset by income from overseas investments. For instance, West African cocoa earned the dollars Britain desperately needed. Also, industrialisation led to overproduction and low prices, implying the domestic continental market was shrinking.

    • Word count: 656
  4. Will examine the effects membership of the European Union or EU has had on the British Constitution and Parliamentary Sovereignty and also the effect membership has had on policies and how the views of the two main political parties have changed

    Parliament can make or unmake any law but only if it does not conflict with EU Regulations or Directives. In certain areas EU law does take priority over UK law. However, when Qualified Majority Voting1 (QMV) is expanded into areas that currently require unanimity2, the UK will in effect, lose the right of veto that unanimity currently allows. This will mean the UK may find itself having to execute laws it didn't necessarily want nor vote for; 2. Parliament cannot bind its successors. This was traditionally understood to mean that say a present Labour government could not pass legislation that would come into force when a Conservative government came into power.

    • Word count: 2423
  5. 'Economic Integration within the European Union: Have MNEs driven the Commission's decision to adopt the IFRS policy?'

    Grilli (1989) believes the two most evident barriers to economic integration to be: the different regulatory treatments of domestic and foreign assets thus, limiting cross-border movement of securities; and the discrimination against "nonresident agents and firms" due to the limitations on the activities they are allowed to partake on the national capital markets. Hence, by revising the standard on the treatment of assets and by having one accounting standard to adhere to when applying for a listing on a foreign capital market should overcome both of these barriers, therefore increasing economic integration across the EU.

    • Word count: 3711
  6. The European Union does already share a common culture in certain respect. With more and more countries wanting the benefits that the EU provides, a European culture surely is imminent

    Add to this the worry of their old traditions being lost and change in their opinion being forced upon them. In more provincial areas any minor change can be seen as quite radical and not welcomed by all. Even though this can be seen as a criticism of provincial areas it is still a culture shared by some communities and could quite easily be thought of as a shared culture. Culture does have good and bad points depending on your beliefs, so all elements do have to be considered.

    • Word count: 1184
  7. The EU's CFSP and the Iraq Crisis: A Catalyst for Change?

    EPC was an attempt to bridge that gap - promoting cooperation but protecting sovereignty. This is essentially the same dilemma that faces CFSP today. EU member states see the benefit of working as one, but in matters of war, each nation wants the final say. The case of the Iraq Crisis presents a scenario in which the weaknesses of CFSP were put on display. But before looking at the Iraq Crisis specifically, we will first look at the state of CFSP in the preceding decade, as the EU redefined its identity following the collapse of Communism.

    • Word count: 5157
  8. The Importance of the Cyprus Issue in terms of the Accomplishment of the ESDP

    This paper aims to highlight the roles played by the main actors involved in the current debate in terms of the establishment of a peaceful settlement in the island as well as the accomplishment of the European Security and Defence Policy. INTRODUCTION With the end of the Cold War, the European Union (EU) started to play an active role in the evolution of the Cyprus problem. Though the United Nations has remained as the main international platform for the parties to proceed with the inter-communal negotiation process, the EU has unavoidably entered into the picture as the main international body whose attitudes have significantly affected the negotiation positions of the parties.

    • Word count: 5555
  9. Transformation of the U.S. Hegemony in Europe through NATO after the Cold War

    Finally, we will argue that the U.S. enabling herself as the European power of the early 21st century successfully served her interests by actively involving with many of the European issues, while trying to maintain her hegemony in Europe. 1. Introduction What were the changing conditions with the end of the Cold War and how did this change effect the U.S. involvement within the European Security Architecture? What are the U.S. interests in this involvement, which will also prepare the settings to my theoretical framework stated as the main question "what has the U.S. done to maintain its security hegemony, which it established during the Cold War?"

    • Word count: 8975
  10. I have chosen to observe a group of thirteen to nineteen-year olds who regularly attend a Youth Club provision, at which I am currently a staff member. The group consists of a number of young people of both sexes

    of requiring extra support, not only from their peers but also from Youth Workers in the environment. The majority of members in this group are in an educational establishment and so the need to learn new skills does not seem, at this point, relevant to them, however, the staff do provide learning opportunities for the young people and this is done covertly, in that, young people are participating in recreational and fun activities which, at the end of, they are able to take away valuable information and new skills. I decided to observe the group covertly because I felt that if the group had realised that they were being observed, they would have behaved differently and I would not have been able to assess the group dynamics appropriately.

    • Word count: 1286
  11. Discuss the impact of the Single European Act on European Business and European Economies in General

    Independent monetary policy has achieved measurable gains with respect to gross domestic product growth. The singe European market appears to have boosted both the European Union's external trade performance and the volume of intra-community trade. In terms of external trade performance, the European Union has moved from an external trade deficit, to trade surplus in merchandise goods. The European Union - 15 enjoys a rapid increase in Internal and external trade in services and also on investment. With respect to intra-community investment flows, gains have been mostly felt in the United Kingdom and Ireland.

    • Word count: 678
  12. The single European market created more opportunities than threats for UK businesses

    Although many threats have become apparent to UK businesses there have also been many opportunities. A wider market is accessible for both producers and consumers. There are now for example, over 500 million consumers in the EU following the enlargement in May 2004. The new larger market must also have benefited internet shoppers, as people will trust EU countries rather than wanting to buy products from the Far East for example, and products purchased from some EU countries are likely to be much cheaper in price.

    • Word count: 552
  13. The EU automotive industry currently faces a number of issues. It lags behind the US and Japan in terms of productivity; labour productivity is currently 25% less than US and 30% less than Japan. However, labour costs are comparable

    Background In 1989, the Berlin Wall dividing East and West Germany fell. It marked the end of a divided Europe and the beginning of the collapse of communism in East and Central Europe, heralding the end of the Cold War. Throughout the Soviet bloc, reformers assumed power and ended over 40 years of dictatorial Communist rule. At first many companies were wary of operating in these countries; believing in the lingering effects of communism. They also believed that the workforce, with its ancient technology, would be unable to adapt to the modern world.

    • Word count: 3739
  14. Describe the main institutions of the European Union and evaluate their roles. United Kingdom joined the European Community, now known as European Union (EU) on 1st January

    The European Commission is made is of twenty five members, subject to the approval of Parliament. Interestingly, they do not represent the country from which they come, although they must be nationals of one of the EU countries. These Commissioners represent the interest of the Union as a whole. The most important function of this Commission is that it is the only body that can initiate legislation. It does so for issues that falls under the first pillar, that is under the European Community category, while the power to initiate legislation on second and third pillars it shares with the member states.

    • Word count: 983
  15. Consequences of lack of self discipline:Here I am going to look at the police service and investigate how members of this service could bring the force to disrepute by not having sufficient self

    Members of the police force have a great responsibility with their job they have to make sure everything is done appropriately, to the best of their ability. One little mistake can cost far too much. Consequences affecting members of that public service: I shall now give an example of an incident which could have negative consequences upon members of the pubic service. Members of the police force are to work with each other as a team, if a police officer doesn't share al the information they have with the rest of the team it could result other police officers being injured and the investigation being negatively affected by this.

    • Word count: 1287
  16. What does citizenship mean in the European context?

    Free movement rights, originally different, are increasingly similar as a result of the European Convention on Human Rights [except in Greece, Spain and the UK] and, in the EU, this will become more so as the Amsterdam Treaty is implemented [except in relation to the UK and Ireland vis a vis the rest of the EU and, possibly Denmark]. Rights to social security are generally based on employment status or residence, not nationality, frequently covering both EU and non-EU nationals under reciprocal agreements such as those in the Nordic League and between Ireland and the UK.

    • Word count: 6481
  17. The Hidden Dimensions of 'Cyber' Culture

    From all over the world, we are all brought together with one reason - our admiration for one actress. During the period of the group's existence, I have witnessed how it has evolved from specialized member relationships and formal discussions about Ms. Jolie, to multi-colored random conversations and warm concerns about each other. Forum sections, where users can talk about anything besides the actress, were created such as "General Discussions". Logging on to the forum wasn't just about Angelina Jolie anymore, but also that sense of intimate bonding began to emerge within. These people start to influence each other, where the status of "popular" group members shapes the roles played and the behaviors conformed within the group.

    • Word count: 1821
  18. Why did the witch-craze happen in Early Modern Europe?

    This information was communicated to the illiterate peasants through the public readings of the charges made against witches at the time of their execution, however they could not fully understand the sophisticated theories, nor were they likely to become as frightened as monks and theologians. These fears penetrated the underclasses through the preaching of priests and through the public executions of witches. An important point to note is that the great European witch-hunt could not have happened until the members of the ruling elites of European countries, especially those who controlled the judicial aspects, subscribed to the various beliefs regarding the activities of witches 3.

    • Word count: 2067
  19. EU actorness in relation to Environment policy and Development policy: An evaluation.

    They believe that as the EU does not possess its own military or security policy it cannot claim to be a separate state, this can only be claimed by the member states individually. They also reject the idea of the EU being an actor as the member states of the EU still hold national sovereignty and do not answer to a higher entity except with regards to economic matters. European Union actorness It is thought by some that EU actorness is constructed through the interaction of three factors.

    • Word count: 3804
  20. The aim of this essay is to present the reason of British government changing it's mind about EEC membership. The United Kingdom became a member of the European Economic Community in January 1973

    In this context, a divided Western Europe quickly realised that the path to its survival lay in working together and establishing effective, common institutions, if necessary with American financial, technical and military support. They were times of great political instability accompanied by heightened social tensions, and innovative diplomatic solutions were urgently needed, even at regional level. The debate on the status of Germany, where, from 1961, the division of Berlin was the symbol in Europe of the Cold War between the two World Powers, together with the inexorable decline in their overseas territories, made Europe's dependence on external forces all the more striking.

    • Word count: 3062
  21. What are some of the advantages of being a part of the EU

    * More Jobs: It is estimated the 3.5 million British jobs are dependent on Britain's membership of the EU. (Source: UK Jobs Dependent on the EU) * Money for Development: The UK has been allocated a total of 15.5billion of European Structural Funds for 2000 - 2006. Over the same period, the UK has also been allocated 120 million for Fisheries Guidance and 961 million for Community Initiatives.(Source: EU development) * A Louder International Voice By working together in the EU member countries can ensure their concerns are heard, and taken more seriously, on the international stage.

    • Word count: 627
  22. The concept of Parliamentary sovereignty means Parliament is the supreme legal authority in the UK, it s not subject to any le

    The EU position dictates that EU Law takes precedence over UK Lawagreement. However, this is problematic for the constitutional principle of Parliamentary Sovereignty but if the objectives of the community are to be achieved then this is essential. This had been made abundantly clear well before the United Kingdoms commitment to the Union. The European Union functions through four principal interlinking institutions, each with its own individual role. The central decision making body in the union is the Council of Ministers which, consists of Ministers specialising in specific particular areas such as agriculture.

    • Word count: 1195
  23. Evaluate the view thatEuropean integration and not, extended cooperation between states, was the onlyconceivable basis for peace in Europe in the post 1945 period.

    in 1946. The first conference organized by the EUF was in 1948. Despite his hopeful statement towards a single unity of Europe, Churchill's statement was only the indication of the Britain's negative attitude towards the Community: Britain was not very interested in being a leader or even taking a part of forming a supranational organization. Although the Hague Congress created such fundamental foundation for the establishment of the Council of Europe, the Congress itself did not maintain in significance in terms of providing realistic aspects of developing the Community in federalists' direction.

    • Word count: 1924
  24. Which EU institution is the most powerful

    Therefore for the most part, the governing institutions of the EC pillar have limited input in these pillars. The European Commission does much of the day-to-day work in the European Union and is the driving force in the Union's institutional system. Their main responsibility is to initiate and implement new programs, and they form a permanent executive that supervise the work of the EU, much in the way that a national cabinet operates. This power is displayed in article 211 of the Treaty Establishing the European Community, which states that, the Commission: 'Shall formulate recommendations or deliver opinions on matters dealt with in this treaty, if it expressly so provides or if the commission considers it necessary.'

    • Word count: 2909
  25. Analyse the claim that nowadays "the president's cabinet performs no useful functions

    When making recruitments to his cabinet the president considers a number of different factors. The president looks for policy specialists, Rod Paige had been a schools superintendent in Houston for 6 years and thus was a logical choice as Secretary of Education, by the same token Anthony Principi a Vietnam veteran was appointed as Secretary of Veteran Affairs. Thus due to the specialist nature of cabinet there are not cabinet reshuffles, at least nowhere near to the extent that we see in British politics. The president must also make sure he has a balanced cabinet.

    • Word count: 1344

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