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AS and A Level: European Union
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Under the current circumstances, any proclamations by the United States would be viewed as interfering with the European Union, and this would be diplomatically improper. Currently, the official communications regarding the situation in Kosova, and the issue of "final status" is limited to UNMIK and the European Union, as these are the entities that have UN delegated responsibilities regarding Kosova. The Americans are stronger in their influence within KFOR, which is separate from UNMIK Administration. However, when Kosovars clearly declare their Independence from Serbia, and demand that the UN fulfill its obligations in accordance with 1244(1999)
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Examine the reasons for the different attitudes to European integration in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden.
In the meantime, Nordic cooperation across several policy areas had progressed considerably. After having been rejected by the EC for the second time, then, the Danes initiated a further strengthening of the Nordic alternative by proposing the erection of a Nordic economic corporation regime (NORDOK). Events in the wider European context soon put an end to this initiative. The EC now welcomed new applications for membership, and Denmark and Norway also this time followed the UK in their third attempt.
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Thus, in the first three weeks of July in 1944 (as the war came to a close), delegates of 45 countries met to draw up an agreement to restructure Europe and create the foundations to a new "user friendly" world atmosphere.2 What emerged was the Bretton Woods Agreement, which set up for the first time in history, almost universal institutions - the International Monetary Fund (IMF); the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD); and the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT).
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It quickly gained an ardent following but was swept away in the Fascism of the 1930's. These theories were revived after another World disaster (WW2) in 1947. The priority for European leaders after the Second World War was to try to prevent Europeans from ever going to war with one another again. For most it seemed the major threats to European peace and security were nationalism and the nation state. The first measure taken that endorsed the amalgamation of Europe was the Benelux agreement, established by the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxemburg.
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Describe the functions of the Council of Ministers, European Commission, the European Parliament and the European Court of Justice in making and interpreting European Union law.
The council is the principal decision making body of the Union. The meetings are democratic and each country has a number of votes roughly in proportion to the size of its population. For most issues a qualified majority is required where at least 67 of the 87 votes must be in favour. Individual Member States also have a right to veto in certain situations where they consider the proposal being discussed to be of a 'very important interest' of their country.
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The Parliament is based in Brussels, Luxembourg and Strasbourg and it proposes laws and the EU's budget. These have to be approved by the Council while the European Commission takes care of the day-to-day running of the EU. Europe is a big place and as with any organisation or structure a set of rules or guides are needed. There are just over 2,500 European Union directives in force at the moment, most of which have been made into national law by the member states. The European Union is going to be increased in size from 15 to 25 member states hopefully by May 2004.
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Many governments claim that the expansion of the EU has become a threat to national identity. Using evidence to support your answer, critically assess the extent to which this claim can be sustained.
The European union's website advertises that, "Enlargement of the European Union will be a historic achievement, ending centuries of division. Europe reunited means a stronger, democratic and more stable continent able to gain full advantage from an Internal Market of 500 million people." (europa.eu.int/pol/enlarg/overview_en.htm accessed 17/12/03) History shows a different picture. Nationalism becomes more and more outdated. People have more contacts than ever with others of foreign regions either by modern means of communication or physically by the liberal legislation concerning the movement between states.
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someone expectations, was the very core of humanity: Yet to conform to custom merely as a custom, does not educate or develop in him any of the qualities which are the distinctive endowment of human being. The human facilities of perception, judgement, discriminative feeling, mental activity, and even moral preference, are exercised only in making a choice. (Mill 1991:65) Someone may argue that the liberal perspective maximized the individual liberty of acting, to an anarchic system's extend. That is why a primary purpose of the liberal state is to design a place in which individual autonomy is exercised without adversely affecting the autonomy of the others.
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and Leon Lindberg (1963).(Nugent p507 1999). Neofunctionalism is both a set of theories and strategies. Neofunctionalism is against the idea that a state is a single unified actor and that they cannot be the only actors on the international stage. According to neofunctionnalists governments decisions were influenced by bureaucratic actors and different interests groups. They considered that non-states actors are important in international politics, such as the European Commission which seemed to be the most important. The Commission was expected to be in a situation were it could influence either domestic and international pressures on national governments to make headway the process of European integration, even where governments showed a certain unwillingness.
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Austria and World War II The WWII is a black chapter in Austria's history. There is always the fact that Adolf Hitler was of Austrian nationality, but more importantly Austria found unification with Germany on a voluntary basis, known as the 'Anschluss'. To provide a legal cober for the Anschluss, Hitler arranged a referendum for April 10, 1938. This referendum was based on pan-Germanism and had an almost total support from the Austrian citizens, although the outcome was undoubtedly influenced by n**i intimidation.
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Someone who was appointed might be able to work together with the other EU representatives and get things done much easier. B) The European parliament lacks power... Hmmm One of the major problems that I have already spoken on if the fact that since each country has a representative in the EU parliament they are all trying to represent their countries wants and views. This would be a big obstacle to any parliament but it is compounded by the fact that each member has a veto and so if any
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This will probably mean that the UK will lose its �2billion rebate that it receives off the EU every year. If Poland and the rest of the members join the EU, stats from the sources show that they will add 29% population, 54% land mass but only 5% total to EU income, which would mean a considerable loss in purchasing power. Other factors affecting the UK are that UK 'development' areas will receive relatively no income as the new EU members will require more 'upgrading' compared to the UK areas.
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There were no members from the Labour movement present. The miners for their part had three points, No wage cuts, No extension of hours and keep the national agreement over wage bargaining. The government wanted to end the subsidies paid to the coal industry. This meant the owners would cut pay. Big mistake came at the start, Saturday May 1st 1926, when the MFGB handed over the power of negotiation to Citrine and the other ditherers at the TUC. Lines of communication were over extended. The delegates from the miners' districts went back to their areas, leaving Cook to mind the shop in Russell Square.
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This happens in the ECJ. Furthermore, the Commission formulates policy for the Council of Ministers to consider and supervises the application of those policies once they are law. European Parliament: This parliament is elected every five years and there are currently 626 MEPs. The European parliament advises on proposals for laws put forward by the Commission, gives opinion on laws to be adopted by the Council of Ministers and supervises the work of the Commission. In conclusion, the Commission proposes legislation, the Council makes the law having consulted Parliament and amendments proposed by Parliament.
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Discuss and evaluate the statement that a 'multi-speed' Europe exists and that it would be essential for embracing an enlarged European Union.
and the collapse of the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM). Such things have not stopped other European Members from applying to join the EU and Membership is set to grow from 15 to 25 in 2004. The 1999 Treaty of Amsterdam and the Treaty of Nice 2000 have both emphasised institutional reforms to facilitate enlargement, and the integration at different levels. However there are huge economic and political variations between the richer 'core' Members (France, Germany and the Benelux countries) and the new Member states, and this will inevitably make the task of integration a lot more challenging, maybe impossible.
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Why did many British colonies demand independence from Britain in the years immediately after the world war two? Explain your answer by referring to two former British colonies (the two colonies are India and Kenya).
There demands for self-rule was ignored. This made people angry and the congress party started to campaign for Indian independence. Another reason why India and Kenya wanted independence was that they were treated unfairly by the British. Also the Indians and Africans got fed-up of being treated badly. The Kenyattas got their land taken off them by white farmers, and the white farmers grew crops and soled it as coffee. The black Kenyattas were made to work for the white farmers and the black people got paid low wages.
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However the expansion under consideration today is different then before. It is unique because the area would increase by 34% and also the population would increase by 105 million that will also involve the membership of different cultures and histories. Eastern Europe and the Balkans would benefit significantly by the enlargement because of the single set of trade rules, a single tariff, and a single set of administrative procedures. Issues about Enlargement There are many issues to have to deal with before enlargement takes place: Political issues The enlargement would mean the growth of the European Union by at least a third of its size again which could slow down the policy making.
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The concept of the state used here is mainly a political one, and it may be defined as the central government controlling a delimited territory and its population; its most prominent features being its sovereign status, autonomy, and functions of guaranteeing the security and welfare of the population, as well as representing the national interest vis-�-vis other states and actors. State sovereignty refers to the exclusive right of the state to exert control over its own territory and population, and state autonomy can be understood as the ability to pursue policies consistent with its national interest.
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"Critically discuss the prospects for the successful realisation of an European Common foreign and Security Policy and accompanying European Security and Defence Policy in the 21st Century".
This allowed for the implementation of some broad objectives, which were later amended by the Treaty of Amsterdam as listed: - * To safeguard the common values, fundamental interests and independence of the Union; * To strengthen the security of the Union and its Member States in all ways; * To promote international co-operation; * To develop and consolidate democracy and the rule of law, and respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms. (McConnells 2003) Europe has experienced many political changes over the past fifty or so years.
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The recent opening of the Channel Tunnel link, providing the south with fast access to the European economic heartland threatens to deepen this divide further. wwab abw esababs ayab abba nab kcab abuk; wwde dew The Single European Act provided the legal muscle that made the target of a Single European Market by 1992 a realistic possibility (Franklin, 1990). It prevented the creation of new and began a process of harmonisation for existing legislation (including taxation and excise duties etc.)
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According to opinion polls, 51 per cent of EU citizens support the enlargement, with 30 per cent strongly opposed to it. The facts from the outset provide no significant problem, aside from that of general apathy towards European institutions. This problem, incidentally, will diminish as Europe grows larger. Aside from this each candidate must fulfil conditions known as the Copenhagen criteria. These bring guarantees of democracy, rule of law and human rights and demand a functioning market economy compatible with that of the EU.
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However, the CAP has been a subject of intense criticism and debate since day one. Why is this? In order to reach a satisfactory conclusion it is necessary to consider certain key areas. Firstly, we must look at the policy and its operating principles, followed by an explanation of the controversy surrounding these principles. We can then look at how various measures have been taken to counter criticism and whether the controversy is likely to continue in the future. Funding for the CAP, which accounts for around half of the EU budget, comes from a pooled resource called the European Agriculture Guidance and Guarantee Fund (or EAGGF).
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This culminated in the creation of the Federal republic in the west and the German Democratic Republic (GDR) in the east in 1949. With Europe in this state and the price of two world wars evident to all Europeans, it was evident that cooperation was needed to remove the causes of war. In 1949 the council of Europe was set up. Although this was a body with no governing power, a statute was signed which recognised the need for like-minded countries to work together.
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In what ways does the new European Union legal order differ from the common law jurisdiction? To what extent do you think the machinery of the new legal order is effective in achieving its objectives?
The case of Costa v. ENEL (1964)4 elaborated on this new legal order. The new legal order of the EU is not only supreme to national legislative provisions, but also national constitutions; Internationale Handelsgesellschaft (1970)5. The ECJ have also made it clear that the supremacy of EU law affects legislation enacted both before and after becoming a member state; Simmenthal (1978)6. Courts of Member States are also obliged to ignore conflicting national law and rule according to EU legislation; Factortame (1990)7. If governments act in breach of EU law they will be liable for financial loss suffered as a result of said breach; Factortame (No.4)
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From an institutionalist perspective: implementation of EU legislation is not only a question of will and incentives, but is seen as highly contingent upon national administrative traditions (Knill; Sverdrup) O Organisational perspective: the extent to which institutions might impinge profoundly on people's pre-established mind-sets and loyalties has to depend on how these institutions are organized. 1st: settings with modest demands on decision-makers' attention (for example: Commission or Council groups) can't be expected to have the same impact as institutions to which individuals devote most of their energy (for example: national ministries or Commission directorates)
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