• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

How and why did Zionism change from a passive notion to an active ideology during the nineteenth century? What was the situation for the Jews in the mid 19th century preventing them from premoting mass migration from Palestine?

Extracts from this document...


Although it has been a precondition of Jewish consciousness to believe that the emergence of a Modern political Zionist movement can be attributed to the rampant anti-Semitism suffered by the European Jews, this does not provide an adequate explanation. The entire history of the Jews can be defined by the way in which they suffered persecution under the oppressive hands of others, proving that anti-Semitism was not a phenomenon unique to the Jews of the nineteenth century. Thus, and exploration of the transformation of the Jewish world in lieu of the invention of the modern world as we know it is imperative to the understanding of the development of Zionism from a passive consciousness and yearning to the emergence of the first political Zionist writings marking the beginning of an active ideological movement advocating mass immigration to Eretz Israel. The nineteenth century was a dynamic climate in European politics. The Enlightenment, a Western movement celebrating man's rationality, centrality, and equality, began in France in the last decades of the eighteenth century; however it was not until the nineteenth century that grants of emancipation proliferated across Europe. With the emancipation of German Jewry by 1871 every European country except Russia had emancipated its Jews, and the face of "Jewish identity" was challenged. ...read more.


In the 1840's both men endeavored to spread their beliefs and enlist support from the Jewish groups and leading Jewish personalities of the time. In 1836, Rabbi Kalischer appealed to Anschel Rothschild to purchase the Land of Israel, or at the very least the Temple Mount. In 1843, Rabbi Alkalai published Minchat Yehuda (Yehuda's offering) in which he elaborates on the need for human initiatives, which will hurry the coming of the redemption. Alkalai called for the introduction of the tithe for financing settlement, for the achievement of international recognition of Jewish Eretz Israel, for the restoration of the assembly of elders as a Jewish parliament, for the revival of Hebrew (particularly spoken Hebrew), for Jewish agriculture, and for a Jewish army. Despite their considerable efforts including the suggestion of practical programs, their influence was limited. Alkali and Kalischer's notions based on "religious redemption", did not appeal to the Jews who were embedded in the assimilation process of western Europe. Nor did they gain support from their orthodox religious followers, many of whom believed the political nature of their plight to be a potentially "dangerous aberration from the true faith"2 during a time which shook Jewish identity at its core. ...read more.


have become estranged."11 Many feared tainting these new values and preventing further assimilation into secular European society by acknowledging the "pessimism" underpinning Zionist sentiment. The efforts of the first political zionist thinkers in the raising of funds, awareness and support were rigorous and revolutionary. As a result of their writing, advocacy, practical plans and their pleas to Jewish philanthropists such as the Montefiores and the Rothschilds to sponsor agricultural settlements, a small group of immigrants from Russia migrated to Eretz Israel in 1882. This has become known in Zionist history as the First Aliyah. Furthermore, their effors led to the establishment of a Committee meeting at Odessa (1883) for the colonization of Palestine, where representatives of all European Jewries met and discussed plans of colonization in Palestine, thus laying the foundation for the Zionist movement- Hibbat Zion. Nevertheless, because of restrictions emplaced on immigration to Palestine by the Ottoman authorities, lack of funding and the complex and conflicting predicaments imposed on Jews during the nineteenth century, the work of these earlier thinkers was never fully realized. However, the various political and religious affiliations and inspiration on "forerunners of Zionism" 12 can be found permeating through the later writing of Theodore Hertzl proving in fact that the notion had been building for decades and that these thinkers were a significant and fundamental role in the formation of the ideology. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Middle east section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Middle east essays

  1. Theodore Herzl, the man credited with being the founder of modern Zionism.

    Theodore Herzl's call for Jewish nationalism was motivated by the modern Western Enlightenment period. The emergence of modern, secular nationalism among the general populace meant that Jewish communities of Eastern and Central Europe were to be secularized. 5 The enlightenment saw the liberation of all Jews from the ghettos with the opening of the 'pale of settlement'.

  2. The Jewish State

    Many Jews joined the Zionist Movement lead by Herzl himself. The Jewish people started lobbying for a country of their own. Through out the years Jews have assimilated into other cultures and have become quite distant from their own culture and religion.

  1. Armed Islamic Group [ Gia ]

    their terrorIt considers anything or anyone connected with what it dubs "the impious, illegitimate state" to be a fair target.disposing the regime is golry to islam so it justifies all voilent means used to fight against this unislamic force.According to the State Department, the GIA "aims to overthrow the secular Algerian regime and replace it with an Islamic state."

  2. Assess the effectiveness of the Arab and Israeli peace initiatives from the 1970s to ...

    They called for the conference to initiate two parallel negotiating tracks: a bilateral track that involved specific talks between Israel and the Arab parties, and a multilateral track that involved many delegations discussing region-wide issues. The conference opened on 30 October 1991, and included delegations from Israel, Syria, Lebanon, and

  1. To What Extent was the Zionist Movement the Main Factor in the Foundation of ...

    and the exclusion of large numbers of Jews from increasingly nationally defined states in East and Central Europe, in particular Russia"5 where movements such as Lovers of Zion (Hovevei Zion)6 were founded, urging the emigration of Jews to Palestine as over 2 million Jews fled Russia due to the pogroms following the assassination of Tsar Alexander II in 18817.

  2. Factors Affecting the Situation In the Middle East.

    In my opinion the two most important short-term causes of the setting up of Israel are the Holocaust and the U.S support for the Jews. The Holocaust is the killing of 6 million Jews in n**i Germany from by the end of World War II. Anti-Semitism (harsh treatment of Jews)

  1. The land of Israel, home of the holy land Jerusalem, has been around for ...

    The Foreign Language press is another important part of Israel's media, also known as the immigrant press. It acquired this name based on its important role in the social integration process along with shaping Israel's image (Capri 72). The immigrant press was important for new immigrants who did not speak

  2. A history of Judaism in Morocco.

    It was during this time that the Chief Judge of Baghdad, Abu Al-Hassan Al Mawardi, wrote down twelve laws called the Charter of Omar that dictated Jewish life as second-class citizens, or dhimmis. Under Islamic rule, Jews couldn't read the Koran, speak against the Prophet, touch Muslim women or try to convert any Muslim against his faith.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work