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AS and A Level: Middle east

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  1. Free essay

    Why was the invasion of Iraq so controversial?

    Blix requested more time for further inspection that was supported by Russia, France and Germany, but the U.S. indicate intention to begin military action March 2003. Due to this, there was a division of attitudes internationally and nationally about Iraq, the U.N. permanent members of the Security Council known as the "P.5" were split. The U.S.A. commencement of military action, supported by the U.K. preceded a second U.N. resolution as it took place before the U.N. concluded its view on W.M.D., thus other P.5 members were unwilling to support military action prior to Blix's assessment, and Blix's team were unable to finish their inspection.

    • Word count: 699
  2. Question to the King of Jordan. In the wake of the Arab Spring, a better business environment and more job creation must be part of any real program of change. I would hence ask His Majesty King Abdullah II to outline his vision of this very change for Jo

    This overall "Arab malaise" was further exacerbated by the perverse effects of globalization: creating more inequalities in the distribution of wealth, widening the gap between rich and poor, mercilessly destroying all forms of cohesion within societies, and breaking them into individual lonely and depressed souls.

    • Word count: 447
  3. Rationales of The Iraq War

    the Rationales for

    • Word count: 8
  4. U.S Policy Options Towards Iran's Nuclear Programs

    Following the breakdown of these negotiations and the resumption of uranium enrichment the matter of Iran's nuclear program was referred to the United Nations Security Council in 2006 (British Broadcasting Corporation). Initially, American foreign policy preference appeared to favor regime change along the lines of the U.S policy in Iraq in the early stages of the crisis once the extent of Iran's nuclear program was revealed. President Bush went so far as to label Iran as part of an "Axis of Evil" along with North Korea and Saddam Hussein's Iraq in his 2003 State of the Union speech.

    • Word count: 1302

    After being a week into the war an interview was held in Tehran by Iranian journalists. They asked the people whether they liked the idea of US Marines occupying Baghdad and most of them responded positively. It seemed that the American intention of encouraging other people in the Middle East to overthrow their governments and establishing democracies was working. Once the actual war was over and the United States military occupied Baghdad, the Bush Administration then went on to dismiss al the Sunnis from the Iraqi military and police force and went on to help the Shiites set up their own government.

    • Word count: 1650
  6. Pre-Islamic Arabia

    Because there were no holy literature and scarcely any formal worship or information about the Gods, there were few moral customs and the Arabs were very relaxed about their religion. The Ka'ba housed at least 300 different idols and so Mecca was central to polytheistic beliefs at the time. The Arabs believed in an all powerful God called Allah (The chief god), who ruled over all the other gods such as, Allat (His Wife), Al-Mannat (the Goddess of fate)

    • Word count: 537
  7. Israel and Iran

    This would assure the different Zionist factions that they would receive some degree of representation in the Knesset. Another compromise between the various religious Zionist groups was that the Israeli state would keep the Sabbath, ensure the observance of dietary laws in state institutions, maintain Orthodox control over laws concerning personal status(for example marriage and divorce) and allow different educational streams in school including Orthodox. There was also to be no definition of the nature of the state and no fixing of its boundaries.

    • Word count: 1295
  8. UN and Iraq: The Weakest Coalition

    (Glanz 2007) This is not a solitary occurrence; the news consistently runs stories of murders and bombings from Iraq every day of the week. Frequently, the United Nations resorts to public condemnations after such attacks occur that were aimed at its' organizations. The results in these condemnations further solidify the argument that the United Nations' attempted humanitarian mission in Iraq will fail. One of the leading points of views regarding condemnations made by the United Nations contends that these "condemnations can antagonize states and harden their positions, leading to precisely the opposite of the intended effect." (Mingst and Karns 2004)

    • Word count: 1490
  9. "The core of the Arab-Israel Conflict is territorial, it's all about land." How far do you agree with this statement? Explain your answer.

    The complexity of the issue is the result of three factors: the city is holy for the devotees of Christianity, Islam and Judaism, namely. Because of the heterogeneous population, achieving a viable and durable amount of peace within the city is a continually tedious task due to the common cases of riots, protests and the general discrepancy of opinions and religious sensitivities. This taxonomy Jerusalem is run with is unrealistic and this causes both geopolitical and religious problems. What instigates the Jerusalem problem even further is that fact that there is no straight forward answer to it.

    • Word count: 1107
  10. Why is it difficult to keep peace talks going in the Middle East?

    Jews do not trust the Palestinian political institutions accusing them of corruption and tacit support of terrorism. They feel a Palestinian state in the West Bank would pursue a long-term strategy of destroying Israel, rather then building up national life for the Palestinians. They feel a hatred of Israel appears to be a greater driving force for Palestinians then building their own society and therefore a Palestinian state would be a staging area for missile attacks on Israel. This line of thought is further enhanced by Arab states riddled with bureaucratic corruption are unable to control or contain fanatics in their midst bent on the destruction of the West.

    • Word count: 4053
  11. Palestinian Middle East

    Romans renamed Israel Palestine, which caused their persecution they and were forced to wander from country to country. Then, years later three million Jews fled Eastern Europe in the thirty years before 1914 in order to escape this persecution known as Anti Semitism. In the 19th- Early 20th Century Palestine was ruled by the Ottoman Empire (Turkey), this was an Arab Muslim country and Palestinians wanted to be free from the Ottoman Empire. Turkey and Britain secured the help of the Arabs by promising to support them in their struggle for independence from Turkey.

    • Word count: 2402
  12. Free essay

    why some palestinians dont agree with terrorism

    A critical reason for Palestinians to oppose terrorism is the sanctions they receive from Israel and other western countries. Palestinians receive sanctions because of terrorism acts Hamas carry out which in turn frightens Israelis to tighten security and enforce sanctions. Israelis turn a blind eye and forget to see the damage this causes to Palestinians and the economic crisis they face. The sanctions which reveal reports claiming "warn rising levels of unemployment's and poverty challenge a family's ability to provide itself with enough to eat". People living in these conditions have become very irate and just want conditions to get back to normal so they can carry on with their lives; this causes families to give up on retribution and just focus on improving their daily life which is suffering.

    • Word count: 1871
  13. Free essay

    The State of Irael is not the Promised Land

    outsider response this shows that even though the Jew are meant to be the chosen people and live in the promised land, God does not protect them from their invaders therefore it can truly be said that Israel is not the Jewish Promised land. It can be seen from Biblical transcripts that the state of Israel is the Promised Land. This is featured particularly in Genesis, and Deuteronomy, where the Land of Israel was promised as an everlasting possession of the Jews.

    • Word count: 899
  14. Arab israeli Conflict

    This was to bring Jews together into a homeland. The Arabs also have a valid claim to the land. After the Roman Empire fell many Arabs drew together and conquered Palestine in the 7th century. These Arabs became know as the Palestinian Arabs. They lived there for hundreds of years until the Turks took over the area and the Arabs came under Turkish rule in the 16th century, this lasted until 1914 and it was this that made Arabs dream of an independent Arab state.

    • Word count: 807
  15. Arab-Israeli conflict

    Refugee camps also have a direct connection with violence. The problem that comes is when a terrorist group attacks a refugee camp. This then makes people in the camp angry and they want revenge. Therefore, the refugee camp becomes a breeding ground for new terrorists that want revenge. These people then cannot really be stopped as their mind is set on getting revenge. This escalates into a potential terrorist attack. The more people that feel like that, the more terrorist attacks and therefore the longer peace will take to come.

    • Word count: 2275
  16. What are the long term Jewish and Palestinian claims to the land of Israel?

    However, the Arabs believed that Palestine was their land over the Jews. The claim the Arabs had was their idea of 'continuous settlement', where they would say that they had lived there for 2000 years and farmed the land, built towns etc, even when the Jews has left, and so they felt the Jews had no right to jut take it after so long. Due to both of the cultures wanting this land, we can see that the Jews and Arabs are not going to live together peacefully.

    • Word count: 553
  17. Why did the events of 1948 and 1967 lead to the creation of a Palestinian refugee problem? Why does that make peace less likely today?

    The Jews agreed to this plan, but the Arabs were furious, for they were losing half the land when they thought they should have all of it in the first place. On the 14th of May, 1948, the British left the land and the borders were established, and immediately the Arabs attacked the Jews land. The Arab Armies lost, and with that also lost a lot of there land. Due to this, a lot of Arabs were now living in Jewish land, and so fled to refugees in Arab countries.

    • Word count: 745
  18. Terrorism. What is terrorism? 2. Why do terrorists use terror tactics? 3. What caused the September 11th terror attacks on America?

    Anyone who opposed the government was caught and often executed without a fair trial, by the guillotine. The motive of this was to control the people and to destroy any opposition so that the government would not be overthrown. Another more recent example is Saddam Hussein's regime in Iraq which ended in 2003 because of a US led coalition. Under his regime people weren't allowed rights like free speech. The government also crushed any opposition. Some people might say that this isn't terrorism because the government should be able to rule their country how they want however this is normally known as terrorism as it is unlawful use of violence on civilians.

    • Word count: 3583
  19. What are the main differences between the beliefs of Palestinian Arabs and Israeli Jews?The main difference between the Palestinian Arabs and the Israeli Jews is that they both believe they own

    Now that the Jews believed they, once again, had a place to live in Palestine it once again caused conflict with the Arabs. The Arabs also believed that the British were on their side. In 1914 the British made a promise to the Palestinians to support them and maintain Palestine as their homeland. They said they would immediately expel the Turks living there and the Arabs would have the land to themselves. Another issue that did and still does cause conflict between the Arabs and the Jews is Jerusalem.

    • Word count: 1625
  20. Why was the World Trade Centre attacked by terrorists on 9/11?

    Osama Bin Landen, an Islamic fundamentalist, the man who US intelligence officials said was to be the prime suspect behind the September 11 hijacking attacks. Bin Laden's anger with the United States stems form the 1990 decision by Saudi Arabia (his home country) ignoring his proposal of providing an army of Mujahideen to defend the kingdom, and allowing the US to use there territory to stage several attacks upon Iraqi Forces in Kuwait. After the US victory, the US military presence became permanent.

    • Word count: 707
  21. Theodore Herzl, the man credited with being the founder of modern Zionism.

    In 1984, due to the prevailing anti-Semitic atmosphere in France, Captain Alfred Dreyfus, a Jewish officer in the French army, was falsely accused of passing military secrets to the Germans. He was unjustly charged with treason and sent to exile in the infamous penal colony on 'Devil's Island'. Herzl witnessed mobs shouting "Death to the Jews!" and resolved that the only solution for the Jewish people, was mass exodus from their present environment, to a resettlement, establishing a territory of their own - a Jewish national state.

    • Word count: 1111
  22. What happened to the Palestinians as a consequence of the 1948 War? Now internationally known as Israel, this significant area of land (approx 10,000 square miles

    In the late years of the 19th century, anti-semitism in Russia and then France became more and more severe. In 1865 a writer, Eugen D�hring, called for the extermination of all Jews. Some Jews believed that they could tackle the problem with assimilation and just try to blend in with the population whereas most Jews realised that they would only be safe in a state of their own. It was then that the Jewish movement to reclaim their homeland, Zionism was founded. Originally they were open to excepting any site as a homeland but history's biblical connections led them back to Palestine.

    • Word count: 1778
  23. Assignment Two: The Arab Israeli Conflict Question One:What are the main differences between the beliefs of the Palestinians and the Israelis?

    Adding to the Zionist belief that Palestine is rightfully theirs, is a passage in the bible that states God chose the Jews as his special people and gave to them the land of Palestine in which to forever reside. However, many orthodox Jews believe that Theodor Herzl and his comrades were people with very weak religious belief; they saw "jewishness" as a race rather than a religious community. They see Zionism as a revolt against Judaism, an enemy of the Jewish faith that called not to religion, but to nationalism, colonialism and even r****m.

    • Word count: 1348
  24. World Issues Paper- The Israeli-Palestinian ConflictWhen thinking of terrorist actions, what exactly do you think of? Just imagine yourself in a place where

    First and foremost, I am going to speak about where the United States stands amidst all this. Both the United States and the European Union believe that they share a common vision of the two states, Palestine and Israel, living side by side in peace and security. President Bush spoke at a White House news conference with European Union (EU) Council President Jose Aznar and EU Commission President Romano Prodi, after Pentz 2 three and a half hours of talks with them. The talks were part of the annual summit between the United States and the European Union.

    • Word count: 1438
  25. Why have attempts to implement the peace settlement of 1993 failed? The long running feud between the Arabs and Israelis has been going on for hundreds of years

    After many tiring months of meetings, Yasser Arafat repeated his 1988 assertions: the PLO would recognize the state of Israel, wanted peace, and renounced terrorism and violence. This was a historic event in the Middle East history as it was the first time the Arabs and Palestinians had met face to face in secret which bridged a huge gap between the 2 states. The first stage of the agreement was withdrawal of Israeli troops from 60% of Gaza and from the West Bank town of Jericho.

    • Word count: 728

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent is the current 'road map to peace' likely to be more successful in achieving peace in the Arab-Israeli conflict than any of the previous attempts in the last 30 years?

    "I do not think the 'Roadmap to Peace' will be successful. It will end up like the previous attempts at peace in the Middle East; Camp David, Madrid and Oslo, all of which failed. In my opinion there is no reason why the current Roadmap to Peace will be any different to these previous failures. The Roadmap has already failed its first target in May 2003, and does not seem to be heading towards any kind of peace. The leaders write the agreements but the people of Israel and Palestine have to live with them, many people on both sides still do not accept the right for the other to exist. Also there are still extreme terrorists groups who are never going to be happy with peace, and are going to jeopardise it every time. Violence in The Middle East has become a way of life for the people who live there, and its possible that that will never change."

  • To what extent do the Israelis and the Palestinians each have history on their Side?

    "In conclusion whilst either party in the Palestinian Israeli conflict could easily construct a case, using differentiating historical data, for having historical rights to today's Israel. However due to Israel's maintenance of territorial integrity and diplomatic pressure, historical precedent ensures that they have ultimately have all of history on their side and indeed the right to remain in Israel. James Robertson A.H.C 1001 1 Samuel 14 : 14 2 Samuel 16 : 11 3 Samuel 17 : 2 4 Anthony Bubalo Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade ; Australian Embassy Tel Aviv 14/10/02"

  • Assess who or what is to blame for the Palestinian refugee problem

    "This source could help us to reach a conclusion about who is responsible for the refugee problem because it gives us a huge insight into the situation. It includes real images and footage and interviews with eyewitnesses who know what's going on. Examples of Israelis blaming Israel add to the many other aspects making it an excellent source to look at for a Palestinian point of view. However, the interviewees were clearly carefully selected to support Pilger's biased opinion. It leaves us wondering what the motives of the eyewitnesses were and why no supportive images to Israel were shown. Even points given by people supporting Israel were made to look unjustified. There is too much left unseen for this source to lead us to a firm conclusion."

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