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AS and A Level: Political Philosophy
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- Marked by Teachers essays 10
- Peer Reviewed essays 4
Syndicalism was a form of revolutionary trade unionism. It was strong in France, Italy and Spain. In France, the Confédération Generale des Travailleurs was dominated by anarchists before 1914. The same can be said for the Confederacion Nacional de Trabajadores in Spain. During the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, the CNT had over two million members. Anarcho-syndicalist movements emerged in Latin America in the early 20th Century, particularly in Argentina and Uruguay. The Mexican Revolution, led by Emiliano Zapata, was influenced by syndicalist ideas. Anarchism in Spain and Latin America soon fell victim to authoritarianism and repression.
- Word count: 2544
It will also be argued that although these factors are significant, they alone cannot explain the rise of the modern state system. To reach this conclusion, this essay will first outline the key factors, paying attention to their interrelation and then show how ultimately, the rise of the modern state system is a result of a combination of both long-term developments and key historical events. Feudalism was the system of political organisation in Medieval Europe. Very different from the modern state system, it was characterised by a division power and a complex hierarchy of power headed by the Pope, followed by the king, lords, vassals and serfs at the bottom.
- Word count: 2135
Another feature of representative democracy is that it is not continuous; this means that the public do not have an ongoing dialogue with the government. This is because of the possibility of representative democracy being undermined. This is because the public have elected a group of professional politicians to make decisions on their behalf. An example of this would be that the public only get involved with politics when it is time for general elections or referendums. One final feature of representative democracy is that it is mediated; this means that the public do not have to involve themselves in continuous meetings to improve their society.
- Word count: 707
Yet the earth is a closed system with limited and exhaustible wealth. Human beings, through the aggressive pursuit of material wealth; regarding energy as ?income? that is topped up rather than ?natural capital?, have upset the ?balance of nature? and are therefore facing extinction. Ecologism therefore tends to challenge anthropocentrism and favour ecocentrism. There is a significant difference between how ?shallow ecologists? and ?deep ecologists? interpret ecological theory.
- Word count: 367
This would reduce the inequalities reflected in the unequal structure of society, therefore upholding justice and fairness. Karl Marx believed that absolute equality based on ownership of the means of production would help in the creation of a classless society. This is evidence that some socialist have been committed to equality of outcome. However Marx didn?t completely support the theory of absolute equality. This is evident in the theory of needs satisfaction where rewards should be distributed ?to each according to his needs?. Here Marx shows recognition that humans have the same basic needs - however some need more than others.
- Word count: 925
This gives little credibility to nationalism as a theoretical construct. However, although national sentiment, undoubtedly, plays a large role in nationalism, to describe it in these terms alone is to be defining patriotism. A certain bed rock of core themes can be found, to which nationalism?s ideological strands belong too. Thus nationalism can be said to be more than simple a psychological phenomenon. A concrete set of core themes can be attributed to nationalism. Out of them, The Nation is the most overt: the belief in the nation as the central principle of political organisation ? be it through language, religion or ethnicity.
- Word count: 825