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AS and A Level: Political Philosophy

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  1. Examine the history of and different types of Anarchism

    Syndicalism was a form of revolutionary trade unionism. It was strong in France, Italy and Spain. In France, the Confédération Generale des Travailleurs was dominated by anarchists before 1914. The same can be said for the Confederacion Nacional de Trabajadores in Spain. During the Spanish Civil War of 1936-1939, the CNT had over two million members. Anarcho-syndicalist movements emerged in Latin America in the early 20th Century, particularly in Argentina and Uruguay. The Mexican Revolution, led by Emiliano Zapata, was influenced by syndicalist ideas. Anarchism in Spain and Latin America soon fell victim to authoritarianism and repression.

    • Word count: 2544
  2. What were the most important factors in the rise of the modern state?

    It will also be argued that although these factors are significant, they alone cannot explain the rise of the modern state system. To reach this conclusion, this essay will first outline the key factors, paying attention to their interrelation and then show how ultimately, the rise of the modern state system is a result of a combination of both long-term developments and key historical events. Feudalism was the system of political organisation in Medieval Europe. Very different from the modern state system, it was characterised by a division power and a complex hierarchy of power headed by the Pope, followed by the king, lords, vassals and serfs at the bottom.

    • Word count: 2135
  3. Democracy and Participation Edexcel Part A Questions

    Another feature of representative democracy is that it is not continuous; this means that the public do not have an ongoing dialogue with the government. This is because of the possibility of representative democracy being undermined. This is because the public have elected a group of professional politicians to make decisions on their behalf. An example of this would be that the public only get involved with politics when it is time for general elections or referendums. One final feature of representative democracy is that it is mediated; this means that the public do not have to involve themselves in continuous meetings to improve their society.

    • Word count: 707
  4. To what extent is Ecologism a single doctrine?

    Yet the earth is a closed system with limited and exhaustible wealth. Human beings, through the aggressive pursuit of material wealth; regarding energy as ?income? that is topped up rather than ?natural capital?, have upset the ?balance of nature? and are therefore facing extinction. Ecologism therefore tends to challenge anthropocentrism and favour ecocentrism. There is a significant difference between how ?shallow ecologists? and ?deep ecologists? interpret ecological theory.

    • Word count: 367
  5. To what extent have socialists been committed to equality of outcome?

    This would reduce the inequalities reflected in the unequal structure of society, therefore upholding justice and fairness. Karl Marx believed that absolute equality based on ownership of the means of production would help in the creation of a classless society. This is evidence that some socialist have been committed to equality of outcome. However Marx didn?t completely support the theory of absolute equality. This is evident in the theory of needs satisfaction where rewards should be distributed ?to each according to his needs?. Here Marx shows recognition that humans have the same basic needs - however some need more than others.

    • Word count: 925
  6. To what extend is Nationalism a coherent ideology?

    This gives little credibility to nationalism as a theoretical construct. However, although national sentiment, undoubtedly, plays a large role in nationalism, to describe it in these terms alone is to be defining patriotism. A certain bed rock of core themes can be found, to which nationalism?s ideological strands belong too. Thus nationalism can be said to be more than simple a psychological phenomenon. A concrete set of core themes can be attributed to nationalism. Out of them, The Nation is the most overt: the belief in the nation as the central principle of political organisation ? be it through language, religion or ethnicity.

    • Word count: 825

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • This essay is aimed to discuss the meaning of ideology and it different uses and abuses to which it may be put in a politics

    "Conclusion, in my view as long as ideology exists there can never be a consensus among all as how people should live and view the world. Liberalism, Conservatism and Socialism are notable example of major ideologies in this world that employed by those who posses power. Due to the way the political process works, ideology can affect many areas of life, social equality is one of such area, which falls victim of changing perspectives and ideologies of those who posses power."

  • "Fascism is nothing more than an extreme form of Nationalism". Discuss

    "In conclusion fascism certainly is something more than an extreme form of nationalism. Whilst fascist regimes, particularly Nazi Germany, demonstrate a strong belief in nationalism, the extremity of actions demonstrates a different belief, a belief in racialism. Furthermore fascism is characterised by other key beliefs which are not shared by nationalists, such as struggle and leadership and elitism. These can be seen to be even more fundamental to fascism that nationalistic beliefs as different kinds of fascist regimes place different emphasis on nationalism, whereas leadership and struggle remain ideologically central regardless of the strand of fascism in question. The central themes of fascism and the ways they have been manifested in different countries indicates that whilst fascism may have some similarities to nationalism ultimately it is ideologically distinct."

  • "In order to find out how things really are, one must understand the filters through which one perceives the world." Discuss and evaluate this claim.

    "To come back to the claim made by the essay question it is quite clear that political, religious and cultural as well as intellectual filters play important roles in the way people perceive the world. "Things", here, could be issues, people and beliefs. The interaction between any person and the world in which he/she lives in is very complex. Therefore, the word perception should not be restricted to our five senses and the messages they send to the brain to be processed. Past experience, beliefs, the degree to which we can be objective as well as intellectual capabilities of analysis and reflection play important roles in the way we analyze and react to situations outside and inside ourselves. In conclusion the claim of the essay is a true one since it has been shown through the discussion the process in which our value system affects to a large extent our perception of the world."

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