How Far Can the Weimar Constitution be Described as Creating an "Effective" Democracy
How Far Can the Weimar Constitution be Described as Creating an "Effective" Democracy? For the first time in the history of Germany, the state was a democratic republic. The constitution was something of a fragile experiment, a guinea pig. Theoretically speaking, the Weimar Constitution could be described as the most democratic constitution the world has ever laid eyes upon, in practice, things were not as clear. Germany was to be a "Federal State," with each "Lander," (state) retaining limited control over local affairs. This recognised local differences within Germany, with each Lander being represented in the Reichstrat. Effectively small states had as much influence as bigger states. This system allowed for the Reichstrat to be a microcosm of German society, with local diversity taken into account, which is of course extremely democratic, because all citizens no matter how remote had somebody representing their local needs. The Reichstag was extremely democratic because the German public elected members of the Reichstag. Universal suffrage for adults over the age of 20, meant that every body, had a vote, to decide who gained a seat. Politicians were accountable to the people, with regular elections, no longer than 4 years apart, giving people the opportunity to vote members out, which is democratic. Proportional Representation meant that every party got the percentage
Assess how far there is or isn’t a distinction between authority and power.
Assess how far there is or isn't a distinction between authority and power. The first main point to raise in this discussion is can the two exist independently, without each other if you were to have total control of the state. It is hard to distinguish between the two as a result, as they are so dependent on one and other. However, Rousseau ( 1712 - 1778) would disagree with this. He claims that authority is dependent on power to work, but power does not have to rely on authority to work, as there is no moral obligation to obey a government based on force (power) as it is able to coerce people into it. Conservatism also favours power, and sees it as more essential than authority, as it believes that with power comes authority just as Rousseau argued. According to conservatism the authority of the state originates from custom and tradition, and is therefore very reluctant to change out-of-date theories of legitimacy. As it is traditional, it is also therefore adopts an authoritarian principle. But where does the state's authority and power derive from, it is the strongest who rule. The ability to use force compels obedience from the state people. It has been seen many times in history that when the power fails, the state ultimately collapses. Power is basically the ability to make things happen concerning both political and social areas, and means people
In what ways has British Socialism differed from other forms of Socialism seen elsewhere? British Socialism has always been a particularly moderate socialist party
In what ways has British Socialism differed from other forms of Socialism seen elsewhere? British Socialism has always been a particularly moderate socialist party. They have mainly been represented by the Labour Party who stand to represent the interests of the working class within the existing democratic political framework. Elsewhere in the world there have been differing examples of Socialism in practise and in theory. Socialism, in various forms, can be seen to have been used by even the most primitive of tribes. They practiced common ownership and egalitarianism however; the Diggers (an English movement 1609-76) still had a fundamental belief in God. With the rise of capitalism and its inevitable class structure, socialist ideals of a classless utopia of equality became popular amongst those at the bottom of the capitalist pile. The Revolutionary works of Karl Marx where also to have a fundamental impact on Socialism in the world. In the 20th century the world has bared witness to the first self- proclaimed 'communist' state, the USSR. Under the leader Lenin and Stalin Socialism has taken on various forms, paying some gratitude to some Marxist teachings whilst abandoning Marxism upon a totalitarian whim. The defining feature of communism that separates it apart most from other ideologies is the core value of equality. By this Socialists measure equality of outcome
Analyse the Christian themes of Dante's "inferno" in terms of its relevance to and his refection's on his contemporary society?
Q) Analyse the Christian themes of Dante's "inferno" in terms of its relevance to and his refection's on his contemporary society? "Oh enslaved Italy! Place of sorrow, ship without captain in a storm, not respectable lady but place of corruption" (The Divine Comedy, Purgatorio, VI 76- 78)1 Dante Alighieri had seen the State of Florence in all its corruption, treachery, and fed up with the Medieval world and its trappings began the writing of his work that would encompass his life, and become a milestone in Dante's acknowledgement in literary history. His masterpiece the "Divina Commedia" (Italian for the Divine Comedy), containing the allegory of human suffering "Inferno", has been seen throughout history, as a model of the moral and religious complications of Medieval culture, but most of all the Medieval world. Dante very much was involved in the political life of his town Florence. From a contextual perspective, Florence was in political turmoil, with the papacy's fraud in gaining power in the state, and the conflicting political leaders of the time opposing the papacy's demands. Dante played a major role in this tug of war of power and authority and is a major focal point of why the "Inferno" was written, and it's underlying audience and message, that pervaded its composition. The Guelfs and Ghibellines were the main social and political factions of medieval
How democratic was Britain by 1918?
How democratic was Britain by 1918? In early 19th century Britain was an undemocratic country. Boroughs and counties divided the electoral system. There were voting differences between them. Men had to be of a particular age and a particular wealth to earn the franchise. Seats were not distributed equally - not by population. Bribery and corruption was apparent throughout the country. Only the rich could stand for election because it was an unpaid job with an entrance fee. There were no frequent elections. However between mid 19th century and 1918 there was vast progress. Greater equality and less power based on wealth helped this. Economic, social and political changes assisted the country into becoming democratic. The reform act of 1867 extended the franchise and introduced a fairer distribution of mps. In boroughs all male household owners satisfying a one year residence could vote. In counties all male household owners owning property to the value of £5 could vote. In boroughs all male lodgers living in rooms worth at least £10 could vote. In counties all men renting property with an annual value of £12 could vote. These acts increased the number of voters to 2,445,847 in 1869. 1 in 3 males had the vote. Even though the number of voters had dramatically increased the franchise was still dominated by wealth. 35 boroughs with populations under 10,000 lost one of
"Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely" why do liberals believe this and what are its implications.
"Power tends to corrupt and absolute power corrupts absolutely" why do liberals believe this and what are its implications. The above statement was written by a liberal called Lord Acton, he is what is commonly called a classical liberal. Classical liberalism was pre-Twentieth century liberalism, before it was revised because of the progress in industrialisation. However, the consistent central theme of liberalism in both forms (classical and modern) is individualism. Classical liberals see humans as being selfish and egoistical beings, as opposed to the modern liberal thought that humans are altruistic. Therefore modern liberals have a much more optimistic view of human beings compared to that of classical liberals. As I have stated above Lord Acton as a classical liberal believed humans to be egoistical, and as such thought that if beings got in to a position of power and authority then the government would be tyrannical. A tyrannical government is one that rules above the law, for example Saddam Hussein's government in Iraq. Liberals thought that to prevent tyranny a sovereign state needs to be in place, which would limit the government's power. Power would be limited by internal and external constraints, for example constitutionalism which would mean that the population would know the extent of the government's power. Liberals therefore wanted to prevent tyranny from
Realism, idealism and neoliberalism
POLITICAL STUDIES POL1005S COVER SHEET Student Name: Brian Lockyer Student Number: LCKBRI001 Tutor: Talisa McMillan Tut Group No: 1 Assignment No:1 Date: August 17th, 2009 Plagiarism Declaration . I know that plagiarism is wrong. Plagiarism is to use another's work and pretend that it is one's own. 2. I have used the Harvard convention for citation and referencing. Each contribution to, and quotation in, this essay from the work(s) of other people has been attributed, and has been cited and referenced. 3. This essay is my own work. 4. I have not allowed, and will not allow, anyone to copy my work with the intention of passing it off as his or her own work. Signature ______________________________ The realm of international relations encompasses many political theories which have had varying degrees of influence on shaping the political world that we live in today. However, the two main theories that most influence the study of International Relations are Realism and Idealism, since the formation of both theories there has been a constant debate about the relevance and implementations of both theories which has therefore resulted in much conflict between the advocates of each theory. This essay will attempt to examine and contrast the theories of Realism, Idealism and neo-Realism and show how they differ and relate to each other. Realism in all of its forms
An Assessment Of The Liberals
AN ASSESSMENT OF THE LIBERALS A major dispute that is still debated today is whether or not the Liberals actually modernised Italy, or if their policies infact hindered development and fully developed divisions with Italian society. The Liberal regime faced many problems even its infancy. To begin with, none of the members of the Liberal party were real politicians; they were lawyers, doctors and university lecturers, or entrepreneurs or landowners. This was a reason for distrust amongst the people. However, all avidly believed in Italian unification and felt it was about time Italy took her rightful place alongside the great powers of Europe. To do this, they would need to 'create Italians'. This was easier said than done, as the population was not used to change and was familiar with being under orders of the Pope, who's Catholic Church was the biggest problem. The Pope did not want to lose control to a political party and would not allow Catholics to take part in any national politics, even as voters. The people of Italy did not have a real sense of national identity, nor did they think much of a unified Italy. Only 2% of the entire population spoke Italian, as the rest spoke in their more comfortable local dialects. The Catholic Church was so unsociable towards the Liberals that it encouraged the majority of the population to also act this way. Between 1861
Assess the advantages of direct and representative democracy
Assess the advantages of direct democracy There are four main "benefits" of direct democracy, but are they really beneficial to the people who live in it? The first benefit is that there is no separate political class from the people - they are the ones making the laws they live under. The people act as a collective to create their own economic and social conditions. I see this as beneficial as it reduces dependence on professional politicians who can easily end up distorting public opinion, but there are still some issues with this so called benefit. A government without experts in various fields surely is not best placed to act in the public interest whereas professional politicians have a better education and expertise in crucial areas than the masses. Personally I'd be willing to accept a gulf between the people and the government in order to have highly trained individuals who work solely in politics rather than have the public try and balance their everyday lives and jobs with constant political participation. As well as being good for society, it also greatly aids individual development, leading to a vastly more politically aware society as a whole because people have to consider each issue for themselves. People develop a deeper understanding of the society they live in, both the politics that affect it at the present and the type of politics that would need to
What is politics & why is power difficult to define
What is politics & why is power difficult to define Since man began to talk politics was born, politics is the social study and interaction with another being. Politics is the process and method of gaining or maintaining support for public or common action. Although it is generally applied to governments, politics is also observed in all human group interactions including corporate, academic, and religious. It is also social relations involving authority and power, the study of government and other political units, It is also the study of conflict resolution, in the modern world, people argue over many beliefs, interests and values, the aim of politics is to remove this conflict to produce a general agreement over what people want and what believe is right. So the study of conflict resolution is coming to a compromise so both groups are pleased in one way or another. But this compromise can be achieved in any way, politics can be the art of the possible, it can be about deception, you can define it in many ways because its such a wide spread thing, just about every social interaction uses politics, from two children arguing over a toy, to two world powers arguing over a border dispute, both of those examples are the same, they both involve a conflict, but what makes them different is the consequences and of course, the first example is just two children, and the