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AS and A Level: Trade Unions

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  1. Work-life balance. In this essay, I will be writing on behalf of the New Zealand Council of Trade Unions (NZCTU). I will outline a policy that the NZCTU believes will help in this area, namely legislation making it easier for workers to achieve more flexi

    The NZCTU supports the current bill, although there are a number of areas in which we would like to see it go further. Firstly, the scope of the bill is currently restricted to workers who are caring for a child under five years of age, a disabled child, or an elderly parent. Although the NZCTU believes that this is an important first step, we would eventually like to see all workers given the right to negotiate flexible working hours, since workers have a wide range of commitments beyond caregiving (Beaumont 2007).

    • Word count: 1636
  2. Trade Union

    These are for 'white-collar' (or professional) workers who perform the same or similar tasks in different industries (e.g. teachers, scientists). Aims Of Trade Union Trade unions have a number of aims: 1. To improve the pay of its members. 2. To improve the working conditions and the working practices of its members. 3. To support the training and the professional development of its members. 4. To ensure that their members' interests are considered by the employers when any decision is made which will affect the workforce. 5.Provide local, social and welfare facilities. 6.Influence government policy by sponsoring Members of Parliament and contributing money to political parties What do unions do?

    • Word count: 1746
  3. Dispute Resolution and Grievance with BellSouth Yellow PagesBellSouth Advertising and Publishing Corporation is a publishing company that sells and produces the

    The third level is held between labor relations and the company union representative. The final level is held in arbitration. Rarely do the grievances go to the arbitration level. Only the most serious cases involving termination goes to the arbitration. In my time as a manager, I had only two grievances go to arbitration. The majority of our cases have been handled at the second or third level. One grievance that stands out in my mind as the most difficult was when we fired a rep for poor performance. This particular rep was a seven year employee.

    • Word count: 1059
  4. Employment relationship

    Oral methods are best for communicating about views and exchanges, which may arouse strong feelings or anxieties. Work-team briefing groups, meetings or quality circles are very useful means. Trade unions are regarded as an essential part of the communication process, by legitimizing management's decisions in the employee's mentality. As an alternative to dealing with individual employee or set up communication systems, trade unions can be useful in issues relating to pay bargaining and grievance handling. Joint decision-making "The practice in which employees take part in management decisions and it is based on the assumption of a community of interest between employer and employee in furthering the long term prospects of the enterprise and those working in it."

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    In fact, a strike might be seen as a less conventional route to display disgruntlement at work when many alternative measures can be enforced that avoid the negative externalities of foregone wages and legal implications. Employees now hold more bargaining power, where the Marshallian conditions lie often in their favour. The question to pose is, is the observed decline in strike activity simply just associated with an improvement in perceptions of workplace industrial relations and not it's' actual recovery? Why would a worker belong to a trade union?

    • Word count: 1904
  6. Trade Unions

    Craft Unions. These are fairly small unions for skilled workers, performing the same or similar work in different industries (e.g. musicians). 4. White-collar Unions. These are for 'white-collar' (or professional) workers who perform the same or similar tasks in different industries (e.g. teachers, scientists). Pay Bargaining Trade unions are most closely associated with negotiating with the employers of a business on behalf of their members over the issue of pay. This is known as the 'pay-bargaining process', and it is an example of collective bargaining.

    • Word count: 1563
  7. Causes of the General Strike

    The agreement said that under the triple alliance that the Railway union and the general workers union had to go on strike with the miners as a sympathy strike. This would cause major problems for the owners of their respective industries. On Friday 15th April 1921, the General workers and the Railway workers refused to support the miners and stopped their workers going out on strike with them. This was a bad day for the miners and was aptly named BLACK FRIDAY.

    • Word count: 1269
  8. Employee Relations - Fire Brigade Strikes of 2002.

    Consequently this meant that negotiations were at a stalemate and thereby leaving only one course of action. The first strike was scheduled to commence on the 29th October 2002. However, this strike was postponed, but not cancelled, due to 11th hour talks between the union and the government. The first strike actually commenced on the 13th November 2002. It was a 48 hour strike, which caused many disruptions to the United Kingdom, as well as a small loss of life. Even after this strike, neither the government or the union were able to find a solution to the situation.

    • Word count: 1548
  9. Trade Unions

    Therefore, the main purpose of a trade union is to protect and improve people's pay and conditions of employment. This objective is usually achieved through negotiation and representation. Negotiation is where union representatives discuss with management, issues which affect people working in an organization. The union finds out the members' views and relays these views to management. Pay, working hours, holidays and changes to working practices are the sort of issues that are negotiated. However, not all views will be taken on board by management; there may be a difference of opinion between them and union members.

    • Word count: 1554
  10. Trade Unions

    Often this is because unions have merged with other unions so that they can increase their membership and their influence. Trade unions are democratic organisations, which are accountable to their members for their policies and actions. Unions are normally modelled on the following structure: * Members - people who pay a subscription to belong to a union * Union representatives - sometimes called shop stewards - who are elected by members of the union to represent them to management * Branches - which support union members in different organisations locally.

    • Word count: 1083
  11. Account for the development of Trade Unions for the unskilled

    The new unions provided an outlet for this class feeling which was waiting to be tapped. The opportunity for improvement came with an improvement in overseas trade which meant there was almost full employment for a time. The 'bargaining position' of unions strengthened in these conditions because the employers could rarely break the strikes by bringing in new workers. By 1884 the agricultural labourer had been given the vote which gave the workers a spirit of determination to campaign for favourable legislation in Parliament. As the workers were slowly gaining political power they also gained a sense of growing confidence.

    • Word count: 1281
  12. Examine the changes that the continuing development of human resource management has brought about in the organisation with the emergence of trade unions in comparison to the effect from industrial relations.

    ( Plowman, D. pg 8) The origins and development of Trade unions tends to rest on the assumptions about workers and their motivations, the nature of the economic and political systems, and the essential function and behavior of the labor movement itself. (Deery, J. S, pg 215) Trade unions is an organisation made up of employees that acts collectively to protect and promote their interests. (Robbins, S.P et al, pg 674). The union is seen as a third party. It enters the workplace to increase membership or solve problems.

    • Word count: 1638
  13. Examine how "the decline of trade unions and low levels of out of work welfare payments, and several other factors have all made it easier for firms to keep wages down'.

    So as you can see the basic purpose of the trade union is the welfare of their union. As we know the number of trade unions have fallen dramatically since 1979. This has be caused by various factors such as changes in composition of employment. This includes manufacturing deindustrialisation and downsizing. Also expansion of the service sector employment and also the rise in self employment and many more. But all of these factors have resulted in the trade unions to decline in numbers.

    • Word count: 1189
  14. How significant were trade unions in the creation and Development of the LRC by 1903?

    Far from being social revolutionaries the members regarded striking as a last resort. This non-militant strategy allowed the unions to develop rapidly as they posed no real threat to the status quo, they were also able to gain some important reforms. The 1867 reform act gave the vote to skilled workers. (It was not until seventeen years later, in 1884, that unskilled workers were finally given the vote. This widening franchise meant more workers felt they were being short changed in that they had finally been given the vote but had no party that truly represented them - this will be discussed later).

    • Word count: 1983
  15. "Big" Industries.

    By 1869, the Transcontinental Railroad was completed in standard gauge. The South changed over to it as well in 1886, and the entire nation used it. Later on, a Go-Getter named Rockefellar, made his fortune through oil. He organized companies into pools, where all prices were the same, and there was no competition. He made it so that there was no conspiracy, which was anything that involved different prices. He built a company, known as the "Trustee," which controlled all the businesses. The first trust, was called "Standard Oil." Two other Go-Getters were Morgan and Carnegie.

    • Word count: 1420
  16. What Are Trade Unions For?

    If a person did obtain an injury in their workplace they would want advice and negotiation on benefits available. If these sort of negotiations where taken to court people would expect legal services, for example, representation at industrial tribunals and legal advice in cases of the employer's negligence. Trade unions would also be expected to provide advice and financial assistance when the employee is faced with loss of pay and/or employment, for example, during a strike. This is a general idea of what is required from a trade union and it can be applied into to almost every sector in the economy.

    • Word count: 1066
  17. To what extent was the end of Fleet Street the result of newspaper industry industrial relations?

    The National Graphic Association (NGA) and Society of Graphical and Allied Trades (SOGAT) unions had power over the newspaper management, which proprietors sought to end. The unions had power over the production process, like in no other industry. If the printing unions launched strikes they knew they would immediately disrupt the production process, as the cost of a day without production was enormous. An example of this is in 1978/79, the Times and the Sunday Times had been shut down for nearly a year, with the owners, Thomson losing �40 million2 as a result.

    • Word count: 1739
  18. To what extent has British employment relations changed since 1980?

    These emphases have had a great effect on Employment Relations, especially on the labour market. Mrs Thatcher believed that the Trade Unions held too many cards and measures had to be taken to tip the scales in favour of the employers. Rose (2001) quotes this as " neo-laissez faire" or new liberalism. Before looking into the changes that were rung in by the Conservative's, I feel it important to establish the main characteristics of this government. According Rose (2001), they were: > "A resurgence of capitalist values (free enterprise, open markets, deregulation, individualism, privatisation) and abandonment of Keynesian economics > "Avid pursuit of monetarist supply side economics" > "A concerted attempt to weaken the fabric

    • Word count: 1891
  19. "Management strategy towards collective bargaining is now characterised by decentralisation and flexibility" Discuss.

    As Purcell argued, the ' decentralisation of collective bargaining and the focus on the local unit' is associated with the evolution of 'organisation- based employment systems'. Let us first focus on the reasons for trade union representation decline and the concomitant decline in the coverage of collective bargaining, particularly in the private sector. Firstly following the recession in 1980, some firms adopted macho-management policies, in response to the threat of plant closure and thus cost-cutting measures were needed. Union power was an obstacle in the way of this and companies such as the British Leyland Company confronted and defeated union power.

    • Word count: 1781
  20. How far was the development of trade union rights hindered by divisions within the American trade union movements 1865-1980?

    Both the immigrant and white workforce refused to work with the blacks. These divisions impeded the development of unity and solidarity that labour needed in order to assert its rights and be recognised. As well as this, ability of the workforce to protest was also fundamentally weakened by poverty and the need to survive. Therefore, the chance of some form of assertive leadership to unite the labour force and win change and reform was unlikely. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, association with radicalism violence and anarchy tainted organised labour protest, those who disapproved included, employers, the general public and members of the labouring classes.

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  21. What are trade unions?

    With a trade union staff are more likely to go on strike which costs the business money. Conclusion: Trade unions are generally good because they keep your staff more happy as they feel more secure with there job and also it means that workers have a more fair deal. This will mean that staff will not get mistreated and will generally mean that the business will become more productive because of the increase in worker moral. RMT RMT: Democratic union composed of over 60,000 members which work in almost every sector of the transport industry - from the mainline railway, the underground, shipping, buses and road freight.

    • Word count: 1514
  22. Labourers’ Treatment at the Turn of the Twentieth Century.

    "With fingers that never new toil / with nose-tip swollen and red/ a delegate sat in an easy chair / eating the labours bread / Strike-Strike-Strike! / Nor dare return to your work, / and still with his swaggering, insolent air/ he sang the song of the shirk." (Desmond; pg.81) In 1913, the British Columbia Federation, a newspaper publication, explained how the labourers were treated at one of the Canadian Northern Railway camp: They (the labourers) are told that there is no work for them at their trade or on the conditions they were originally hired, and they will have to work as common labourers with pick and shovel, or any other work they may be set at.

    • Word count: 1445
  23. Why did the General Strike of 1926 take place?

    When men from the war came home they found the promises made by Lloyd George were not met and if men have been fighting for their country for four years they are prepared to fight for their jobs and standards of living at home. There are many long-term (something which builds up over a long time) causes of the strike. These are; conditions and pay of miners, at the time of the General Strike an average of two miners were killed per day.

    • Word count: 1872
  24. 'The First World War was important as a locomotive for domestic change' (Clive Emsley). How true is this of trade unions and government intervention in social welfare in Britain during the period 1914-1922?

    The first state pensions were introduced in 1909 with the Old Age Pensions Act, and the Workmen's Compensation Act enabled workers to claim for injury or illness. These are all examples of the government finally beginning to look after the working classes. This shows that Trade Unions were becoming militant and powerful before the war, and the government were already introducing welfare reforms, and that the war did not start, but merely increased these factors. The Defence of the Realm act of 1914 gave the government control by nationalising the main industries, such as the coal industry.

    • Word count: 1448
  25. Why did the general strike of 1926 take place?

    so the miners thought that because they were risking their lives they were they should get a higher pay, these factors contributed to the strike by building tension between the miners and mine owners and other businesses because of the rise in export prices. The trade unions contributed and supported strike action because they believed that they had special rights such as higher wages and threatened a general strike along with Labour for the first time in 1920, months later in 1921 the confrontation was to come to a head when the government said it was stopping its control over

    • Word count: 1666

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • To what extent was the end of Fleet Street the result of newspaper industry industrial relations?

    "In conclusion, 1989 marked the end of Fleet Street as the dominant newspaper production centre as this was when the last newspaper rolled off the printing press in Fleet Street. To a large extent this was caused by newspaper industry industrial relations between printing unions and the newspaper management. Although, it was not the only factor. The break from Fleet Street, in part to break the power of the printing unions and the economic problems they caused, would not have been possible without technological developments, a change in the political environment, the other economic benefits breaking from Fleet Street would create, and Murdoch proving that a move away from Fleet Street would be successful. But it was the economic pressures the printing unions put in newspaper owners that were the dominant factors persuading owners to move away from Fleet Street."

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