"What are the long-term Jewish and Palestinian claims to the land of Israel?"
One of the main reasons why the conflict in the Middle East between the Jews and the Palestinian Arabs is so bad is to do with the long term claims to the land. Both the Arabs and the Jews believe that the land is rightfully theirs because of the long term settling which both sides have taken part in. The Jews believe that they own the land because they think that in c.1200 BC Moses led God put them into the area of Palestine and so according to the Old Testament Jews in Palestine. It was not only religion that made them think that they deserved the land; they also feel that they needed it. The Romans had conquered Palestine after a periodic resistance by the Jews around 63 BC. But after revolt the Jews were forced to leave Palestine and were dispersed (this was called Diaspora) throughout the Roman Empire around 135AD. Ever since the Jews were forced out of Palestine they had always longed to return, every year at Passover they would hope that the next year they would be in Palestine. The Palestinian Arab claim was a lot simpler. It was simple they had always lived in Palestine (The Jews would call it Israel but the Palestinian Arabs would call it Palestine), they had never left it and they were the original settlers there, and not because they had been led by a character such as Moses. The Arabs continued to make more settlements after the Jewish Diaspora. Even which the Turks has established supremacy in the Middle east around c.1500 the Arabs still managed to continue to live in the area and when it came to 1880 and the decline of the Turkish Empire, even more Arab countries were wanting to rule them selves. It is hard for peace to reach when there are two such contrasting wants (or needs for the land). The Arabs will feel that it if their land, and that when the Jews try to come to it they are stealing it, and so will need to go to war. The Jews also will feel that one of the most godly characters of the Old Testament, such as Moses led them there, so they cannot disobey him, and must settle their. And also knowing that where ever else they go they would face persecution means that they would have to fight for their place in Israel making peace less likely.