To what extent has socialism been defined by it's opposition to capitalism
To what extent has socialism been defined by it's opposition to capitalism The history of socialism has been punctuated with a number of revisions of its traditional ideals. These have included several revisions of the relationship between socialism and capitalism. Whereas traditional socialist thinkers such as Karl Marx saw socialism as fundamentally opposed to capitalism, and the abolishment of the capitalism system was their primary goal, socialism has developed dramatically to an extent that modern socialist thinkers arguing that socialism can exist alongside capitalism. Marx saw capitalism is against human nature. He believed humans were sociable and co-operative, but capitalism was a system which encouraged competition and pursuits of self-interest, and split the community into two opposing classes; the proletariat and the bourgeoisie. He believed, that to achieve 'social justice', there was call for a violent revolution in which the working class would rise against their exploitation and overthrow the capitalist system. This would then be followed by a transitional stage, the 'Dictatorship of the Proletariat', before a communist system based on production for need was established. Towards the end of the twentieth century, socialist academia were beginning to question the ideas of Karl Marx, as his prediction of the fall of capitalism had not come true. But the
Has the creation of the Single European Market been a success?
Has the creation of the Single European Market been a success? The Single Market was contemplated in the Rome Treaty. It consisted of an eight-year programme to be completed between 1985 and 1992 and one of the main objectives was to eliminate barriers that existed to trade in the then European Community. Its completion was considered to be one of the most ambitious targets and one of the most enduring successes.1 The Single European Act provided the legal framework that made the attainment of the target of a Single European Market by 1992 a realist possibility, through a process of harmonisation for existing legislation. The mobility of capital, labour and goods and services became reality in simultaneous with the establishment of a new European trading block in which competition between countries and companies has increased. The key objectives of the Community are in the Rome Treaty. In this essay I will analyse whether or not the Single European Market has been a success, defining success as 'a favourable accomplishment'. The original plans for a Common Market as known in the Treaty of Rome, which emphasized the creation of a Common Market and Customs Union between the member states, meant the removal of tariffs and other obstacles to trade between the original Six and, as expressed through the Common External Tariff (CET), the adoption of a Common Trade Policy
'Accidental Death Of An Anarchist' was written by Dario Fo, in 1970 - Contextualisation
Gemma Singh ACCIDENTAL DEATH OF AN ANARCHIST By DARIO FO CONTEXTUALISATION 'Accidental Death Of An Anarchist' was written by Dario Fo, in 1970 and was first staged in 1979. The play is a provocative piece of drama, containing highly dangerous issues concerning the corruption of political authorities. It's controversial issues and perfected physical movement captivates an audience through it's comic theme as well as pungent serious elements. Dario Fo was born in 1926; he is the son of a railroad worker. Fo is a popular and controversial playwright as well as actor and director. He is well known for leading the field in political satire internationally and in Europe for over 30 years. Fo's main targets (so called inspired attacks) have been corruption in the Italian Legal System imperialism and capitalism .Fo began his career as a performer in the satirical cabaret-style revues (which probably influenced his continuous pleasure in writing plays with a main theme pungent political satire - like 'Accidental Death Of An Anarchist'). In 1973, his wife Franca Rame, was kidnapped, tortured and raped by a group of fascists, to punish them for their political activism. However this never drove the exceptional author to stop producing satirical plays, in fact it probably gave some form of motivation to continue the journey of 'Accidental Death Of An Anarchist' and its "biting
Modern World Study: Arab- Israeli Dispute.
Alex Drake Modern World Study: Arab- Israeli Dispute. ) What are the origins of the Arab- Israeli Dispute? The Arab- Israeli dispute has been ongoing for thousands of years. In the Old Testament of the Bible the story of Moses is found, this is about a young man who leads the Jewish people out of Egypt and into Israel. This happened Before Christ when the Jews were slaves to the Egyptians. When Moses was born into his Jewish family, the Pharaoh ordered all of the baby Jewish boys to be killed. However, Moses survived and was eventually raised by the Pharaoh's daughter. During his lifetime he was called by God to free the Jewish people from their captivity, after a number of years he succeeded, and now knowing of his original heritage he lead the Jews over the Red Sea and into the 'Land flowing with milk and honey' also known as the 'Promised Land'. "THIS IS OUR HOMELAND. GOD PROMISED IT TO US IN ANCIENT TIMES." From then on the Israelis (who are the Jewish people) believed that Israel is their Promised Land. The Jews settled in their homeland however, the Roam Empire then conquered Palestine. Then in AD70 and AD135 the Jews fought back. This caused the Romans to forbid the Jews to live in Palestine. So the Jews were forced to leave their 'Promised Land'. This wasn't easy for the Jews as anti-Semitism was rapidly rising, this is the hatred of the Jews. People didn't
Why did Britain join the EEC in 1973 and not in 1957?
Why did Britain join the EEC in 1973 and not in 1957? The EEC's description is as an economic customs union, in a supranational political structure. In 1951 the 'Six' first established their European unity by signing the Treaty of Paris, which was the beginning of the European Coal and Steel Community. The ECSC followed a Plan by French Foreign Minister Robert Schumen, which arranged the ECSC as the institution for the European coal and steel industries. The EEC was the result of talks started at Messina, then finalised when the Treaty of Rome was signed by the 'Six' in 1957. Britain was not present at the talks at Messina, or for the signing of the Treaty of Paris or the Treaty of Rome. This meant that Britain had not got involved in the EEC when it was established, meaning it would be harder to get involved later. A phrase applied to this lack of involvement from the start, is "missed the bus" into Europe. A conservative MP, Anthony Nutting, wrote in his book Europe Will Not Wait (1964) that he believed that by "missing the bus" Britain had been left far behind, loosing the chance to take a role of leadership in Europe, from there it could have moulded Europe to suit itself. Also he explained that if Britain had realised it would have had to join in the future anyway, there could have been more involvement in the talks in Messina, and the Rome Treaty, which would have meant
What, in de Tocqueville's view, are the virtues and what are the vices of democratic government?
What, in de Tocqueville's view, are the virtues and what are the vices of democratic government? Democracy in America was written by Tocqueville to see how such a stable and prosperous democracy as America worked and to see why attempts at democratic government in France had failed so disastrously. The theme of the (often disorganised) book that emerges is how liberty is best preserved in the midst of the growing equality of conditions present in America. Tocqueville outlines many of the advantages he sees in democracy from the point of view of a French liberal. On the other hand, he also warns of the dangers of democratic government which manifests itself in many ways. Elements exist, however, within the American political system, that act against these dangerous democratic tendencies, and that is why, on the whole, Tocqueville is so admiring of American democracy. "Democratic laws tend to promote the welfare of the greatest number."1 It is clear that giving each citizen (which does not include certain groups, for example, slaves) the ability to choose the government that their interests will be served, rather than interests of an aristocracy or other minority. Therefore, from a utilitarian point of view, democracy helps establish what the interests of the majority are in society, and helps put those interests at the forefront of decision-making. Tocqueville refutes the
Barack Obama and Hilary Clinton are both potential presidential candidates representing the views of the Democratic Party. The diversity of both these candidates combined with the controversial issues encircling the election make this one of the most cruc
Michael Gillott February 13, 2008 Poli 361 Narrative Paper America is a country of contradiction. The innovative and modern in its western culture fails to coincide with the traditional and steady election process and mentality of the American majority. Through 216 years as a recognized nation and numerous strides in racial and ethnic equality, not one commander-in-chief has emerged as a shift from the conventional white-male standard; until now. Two candidates, one of them a woman, one a black male, and both democrats, are challenging both terms, white and male, in the 2008 election. Barack Obama and Hilary Clinton are both potential presidential candidates representing the views of the Democratic Party. The diversity of both these candidates combined with the controversial issues encircling the election make this one of the most crucial ballots of our time. With both already straying from the norm, it is safe to say that the more conservative candidate out of the two will end up taking the democratic candidacy. Although Obama's campaign and ideals hold the support of both the youth and black community, Hilary Clinton's more orthodox policies and structure makes her a more likely choice, for conservatives, in the 2008 election. While Obama fronts a neo-political campaign and a popular newness, his ideals may be too turbulent and divergent from the traditions of the
Should the primary system be reformed?
Should the primary system be reformed? On the surface, the primary system seems to combine the best of all worlds. It has brought about the decline of the "smoke-filled-room", with ordinary citizens selecting the Presidential nominees - and yet it allows both of the major parties to retain their identity with separate ballots. Mirroring the Electoral College system allows for states to retain their own identity, while scheduling stops larger states from dominating. However, the democratic credentials of the primary system can easily be disputed when statistical evidence is brought into play. In New York, only 18.3% of potential voters turned-out for the 2008 primaries; this compares unfavourably to the 50% that voted in the national election of 200B. High levels of political disengagement abound. Moreover, prohibitive state-party rules, regarding closed primaries and caucuses, often restrict voting rights to those registered with the two major parties. The combined result of this is that, invariably, nominees are elected not by the American people at large, but rather by a smaller sub-section of the population - those with political interest. Of course, it could be argued that this not an altogether undesirable outcome. In effect, caucus goers and party-affiliates are able to vet the candidates for a wider electorate that is less likely to be educated on the issues. As a
why have pressure groups become more important in recent years
Why have pressure groups become more important in recent years? In recent years, there have been great advances in the media with the advent of television and the internet. Pressure groups have been able to harness these new means of communication to their advantages waiting to spread their message to ordinary people. All pressure groups now have their own websites on the internet where people can learn more about their programmes and how to support the pressure groups. This can vary from a single click to a donation or taking part in a rally sorting a cause. E.g. green peace gas a full in-house studio where it produces television studio where it produces video and television documentaries highlighting it aims and ways to help. Many pressure groups such NSPCC also have TV advertisements with emotive pictures to urge people to donate and make people aware of their causes.In this way a greater proportion of the electorate are directly or indirectly mre active in pressure groups ,thus increasing their influence and profile. In the modern age, politics has become increasingly a single issue consensus. All parties now believe in similar issues like the environment , NHS and market economy. Hence pressure groups can lobby about such issues and attract a wide range of people. This means that people can express the stragnht of oppsitions to a particular issue. They can also allow
McCulloch v. Maryland and the Necessary and Proper Clause.
Joanna Rodriguez September 29, 2003 Period 3 McCulloch v. Maryland and the Necessary and Proper Clause The United States was a newly independent country in 1791 still recovering from the effects of the dominion of Great Britain during its years as a colony. The government leaders were still unsure if a strong federal government was the best option for the country. Many of them such as Thomas Jefferson, who the Secretary of State at the time felt that a limited government was the best option because it did not centralize all the powers into the national government. Secretary of Treasury Alexander Hamilton proposed a charter to Congress that would create a national bank. Jefferson with his ideas of a limited government was against this charter because it would give the federal government too much power. He debated Hamilton by saying that no where in the Constitution did it state that the national government had the power to create a national bank and that the government had only the explicit powers the Constitution gave it. Hamilton then stated that the national government had all the powers the Constitution did not deny them and that the necessary and proper clause in Article one and section eight of the Constitution gave it the right to create all the laws necessary to carry out the Constitution. With the support of President George Washington, congress passed the