"Fishing in the EU maritime area is increasingly unsustainable." Discuss this statement with reference to the Common Fisheries Policy.
European Union Essay "Fishing in the EU maritime area is increasingly unsustainable." Discuss this statement with reference to the Common Fisheries Policy. Sustainability of fishing is the ability to continue the practice of fishing indefinitely. This means that the amount of fish removed, are naturally replaced. Not only does fishing contribute to the depletion in the amount of fish available, but also factors such as pollution and the destruction of natural habitats/ resources will cause lower amounts of fish to naturally occur. In the EU fishing is becoming more unsustainable, and evidence of this is clear as in 1985about 1750 thousand tonnes of cod, haddock and hake were caught in the EU, within five years this had fallen to just 1050 thousand tonnes, and ever since 1990 it has reached no higher than 1150 in 1995. One of the biggest problems that fishing faces is the fact that the seas are not owned by any one particular country. This means that the amount of fishing in a sea is not easy to control as a result. For this to occur one body which can control many countries has to set out regulations which must be kept to and monitored. The reason for this is because without control fishing will grow out of control and cause fish numbers to deplete to such an extent that it cannot be regenerated. This can not occur without the agreement of several countries because if for
"How was the doctrine of supremacy developed by the European Court of Justice, and how was it interpreted by the UK courts?"
"How was the doctrine of supremacy developed by the European Court of Justice, and how was it interpreted by the UK courts?" The aims of this essay are to explain how the European Court of Justice initially developed the doctrine of supremacy. This will be done by explaining the process upon which the doctrine of supremacy was established within Europe. Also to be included is information regarding the different set backs that the doctrine of supremacy encountered. The essay will also determine how the doctrine of supremacy has been interpreted by the UK courts from the time when it was introduced up to present day. The essay will also have an area where the future of EU supremacy is discussed. "The European Court of Justice has consistently distanced the EU legal system from 'ordinary' international law."1 As this is arguably likely to cause problems within the EU regarding which law is applicable. Therefor the EU believes that on accessing the EU the relevant member state is transferring its sovereign rights to the Community. Which effectively produces another independent legal system. The court has given effect to this view by proclaiming four principles: - EU law penetrates into the national legal systems, and can and must be applied by the national courts, subject to authoritative rulings on the interpretation, effect and validity of EU law by the Court of
"Imperial in foreign affairs, imperilled in others". How accurate is this view of Presidential power?
"Imperial in foreign affairs, imperilled in others". How accurate is this view of Presidential power? I would agree with the view that the President of the United States is imperial in foreign affairs, yet imperilled in others, especially those domestic. The imperilled presidency is a concept put forward by Gerald Ford, who suggested that far from being too powerful, the President is in a constant power struggle. This is because the power of the president is severely constricted by, among other things, a lack of public trust and a dependence on Congress and the Supreme Court in order to pass legislation, especially following the shift in power between the executive and the legislature following the events of Watergate and Vietnam in the 1970s. I think that the Presidency is imperilled in domestic affairs because he must rely on Congress to pass any bills proposed by him. This is because the balance of powers outlined in the Constitution prevents the executive from being part of the legislature, unlike in the UK. This means that the President, I think, has very little power other than, as Richard Neustadt claims, the power to persuade. I think this is typified by the discrepancy between the power of JFK and Lyndon Johnson. This was characterised by Kennedy failing to pass a great deal of his proposed civil rights legislation due to opposition from Southern Democrat
"India was granted independence in 1947 because of Gandhi's policy of non-cooperation." How far do you agree with this statement?
"India was granted independence in 1947 because of Gandhi's policy of non-cooperation." How far do you agree with this statement? In 1947 India was granted with its independence from the British Empire that had ruled over India since the 19th century. The campaign for independence began with the formation of the Indian National Congress party in 1885, the congress was a party for Indians to play a part in the running of the country. However, in 1914 World War 1 broke out and Indian people supported Britain and the Empire, sending food, materials and money. In exchange for their support during the war Congress demanded the British fix a date for India to become self-governing. This was agreed by the British but no date was actually set. In 1920 Gandhi persuaded Congress to vote for the first time for self-rule (self-government and self-control). Gandhi changed Congress by making it appeal to a wider population instead of just the wealthy. He also started most of the major campaigns against the British. Perhaps the most famous of these were the protests against the British control of salt and cloth imports from England that that led to them making their own cotton and salt. Gandhi's policy of non-cooperation (civil disobedience) and peaceful protest was the major strength of his protest movement and popularity. It contrasted with those who previously wanted a violent
"Loser takes all - it must be time to abolish the Electoral College". Discuss.
c) "Loser takes all - it must be time to abolish the Electoral College". Discuss. The outcome of the 2000 American election, in which the electoral college produced a result that was inconsistent with the popular vote, led to many calls for the reform, and even the abolition of this institution and the introduction of some form of direct popular election of the President. A mass of protestors dissented against the electoral college, branding it as a "dinosaur that should be retired to a museum" (Senator Richard J. Durbin). Polls taken in the two months after the 2000 election seemingly indicated that Americans largely supported abolishing the Electoral College in favour of a system of direct popular election of the president. Even without the salience of the 2000 election, finding such poll results would not have been surprising. Outcries to the Electoral College is nothing new - Gallup public opinion polls since the 1940s show that majorities of the public have consistently favoured reform. (Newport 2001). Indeed, there have been more attempts to reform the Electoral College than any other part of the Constitution, and aspiring reformers range from across the political spectrum, including Franklin Roosevelt and Richard Nixon. In 1969, the House passed a measure to replace the electoral college by a nationwide popular vote, however, was defeated in Senate. The Electoral
In What Way Does the Biological Constitution of a Living Organism Determine, Influence or Limit its Perception
In What Way Does the Biological Constitution of a Living Organism Determine, Influence or Limit its Perception? There are an uncountable number of living things, most of which are not discovered yet. Human, is known to be the most intelligent, most developed and most social of all. What's more, we say that human has the most ability to perceive things in the correct way, because he is the most biologically-developed living thing. By the way, does the biological constitution really affect perception? We, human beings, can differentiate colours whereas a dog cannot. It doesn't matter for a dog if it had a green or brown collar with same design. A second example can be given about the elephants. Because of some hormones they have, they have a sociological life and system. They select a leader and do what it wants and walk behind it. So, an elephant finds a lonely life useless. But a snake, which lives individually, finds the herd life useless and difficult. Another example can be given about the owls. They can see very well and their absolute threshold for seeing is very high at night. Plus, it's sound can be heard by other owls from far away. So it perceives the night as a normal time of day, but we, humans, find the darkness dangerous. Furthermore, human and most of other animals can understand if they're hungry or not - but the fish cannot. Because their nerves about the
"Criticallyevaluate the Role of the Commissioner for Judicial Appointments."
"Critically evaluate the Role of the Commissioner for Judicial Appointments." The commission was set up originally after Sir Leonard Peach was ordered to provide a report into how the proceedings of appointments for the judiciary and the Queen's Counsel was made. The main aim of the report was to evaluate the procedures into how judicial and Queen's counsel appointments are made. In particular the effectiveness of the criteria given and the procedures for the selection of the best candidates, the safeguards against discrimination against race or gender and the way in which candidates are assessed with regards to the criteria. Lord Irvine the current Lord Chancellor before appointment into office had strongly criticised the so-called secretive and outdated system and had called for an independent appointments commission. Now that he has been appointed into his current position, the independent commission for judicial appointments set up does not actually appoints the judiciary but instead monitors the Lord Chancellor's team that does. In a damning report, it was found that the appointments system was said to be slow, unsystematic and unprofessional. It also found that a number of senior judges and leaders of the legal profession did not provide detailed reasons for their assessments, which was a requirement. It has been suggested the current system is still producing a white
Democracy in Colonial Wethersfield, Connecticut
David Faulkner Period 4 Democracy in Colonial Wethersfield, Connecticut In the years before the Revolutionary War, America and its people started to change, becoming more independent and more Democratic. From the example of Wethersfield, it is possible to see that the American society was becoming more Democratic in the later1700s but was also still very much influenced by the Christian church. From an assortment of evidence, such as the increase in voters and the decrease in slaves, we can see the change that was going on. In the social structure of Wethersfield, we can see how they are becoming more Democratic because of how there are less slaves than there previously was according to document A. Something that is shown by documents B, D, and E is the unfairness in land holdings. It would seem that by becoming more democratic in some areas, the rich are finding ways of making themselves richer, shown by the unfairness in the taxes of property and the chart comparison of how the same people stay in the top percentage of the wealthiest. Along with that, in document E, we can see how the houses, although very similar, have highly different tax assessments; maybe certain people of those houses had a little more influence than the others. The politics of the new world had shown to have more participation in the voting and electing of officials. In document G there is
" One person's freedom fighter is another person's terrorist" is a common statement used to describe the different perspectives about terrorism or conflict around the world.
" One person's freedom fighter is another person's terrorist" is a common statement used to describe the different perspectives about terrorism or conflict around the world. It is difficult to define, as different people have different perspectives on this. Terrorism is where the groups do not support the government or leaders, moreover using violence towards society to gain attention as a method to achieve their goals. While freedom fighters are people who fight to achieve their own beliefs and they are willing to their for their leaders. However, a person or group could be engaged in both at the same time. For example, Palestinian suicide bombers are described as terrorists in Israel and the United States, but many Arabs and Muslims and some Europeans view their attacks as a legitimate part of the struggle for Palestinian national liberation (Council on foreign relation). People perceive that al-Qaeda is a Muslim terrorist group as they have committed a great deal of attacks in society; while some say that they are freedom fighters for their own beliefs and to achieve their goals. Al-Qaeda is an international terrorist network led by Osama bin Laden. Thousands of volunteers from around the Middle East came to Afghanistan as warriors fighting to defend fellow Muslims beliefs and culture. It seeks to free the Muslim countries from the influence of the West and replace their
"'A troublesome partner.' Using examples, to what extent would you say this comment accurately describes the United Kingdom's membership of the EU since 1973"
"'A troublesome partner.' Using examples, to what extent would you say this comment accurately describes the United Kingdom's membership of the EU since 1973" Since the mid-1980s, the transfer of state powers to a EU level and reforms affecting the distribution of power in EU policy have challenged the sovereignty of member states. Since the United Kingdom joined the European Union through the Conservative Prime Minister, Edward Heath, it has been seen as the most awkward partner in the 'club' and has been a force for disintegration within it.1 This was particularly apparent during Margaret Thatcher's premiership.1 This view however, neglects an appreciation of the importance of accomodationism within the UK approach to EU developments. The UK/EU relationship from 1945-present will be profiled in the contrasting terms of uncooperativeness then accomodationism with an attempt at explaining the reasoning for the actions of the 'troublesome partner.'1 Plate 1: Thatcher in 1975 in pro-European campaign Source 2 At the time of Britain's accession in 1973, EU membership was seen as essential for the reversal of economic decline. Since then, UK governments have encouraged the EU to develop into a large free trade area, but have sought to limit EU competences and revenues in attempts to ensure that sovereignty is not diminished and that the UK governmental system, as a whole,