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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 24
  • Peer Reviewed essays 19
  1. Outline and evaluate the working memory model

    It is divided into the phonological store and the articulatory process. The visuospatial sketchpad processes visual and spatial information in a mental space and is divided into the visual cache and the inner scribe. The episodic buffer brings together material from other subsystems into a single memory rather than separate strands. It also provides a link between working memory and LTM. There is empirical evidence to support that working memory has separate components, functionally and anatomically. Support for the WMM comes from Shallice and Warrington’s (1970) case study on patient KF.

    • Word count: 546
  2. Outline and evaluate the Multistore Model of Memory.

    If attention is paid, information is coded acoustically then transferred to short-term memory. To retain information in short-term memory for a limited time, maintenance rehearsal must take place. Information can then be maintained and transferred to long-term memory through elaborative rehearsal. The information can then be retrieved for use in the short-term memory, once it has been coded semantically in long-term memory. There is empirical evidence to support the rehearsal process outlined in the multistore model.

    • Word count: 428
  3. Psychology Revision Notes.


    • Word count: 103
  4. Discuss the Cognitive Approach to Treating Disorders.

    Cognitive biases can be internal, global or stable. Depressed people use cognitive biases to view the world. A strength is that there is clear evidence for cognitive biases. Clarke found that individuals with panic disorders exaggerate the significance of physical symptoms. In addition, therapy based treatments are effective in treating anxiety disorders and depression e.g. CBT and REBT. A weakness of the approach is the idea of schemata and NATS are vague and unexplained. It?s not clear how irrational thoughts are designed and measured.

    • Word count: 512
  5. Discuss the Behavioural Approach to Treating Phobias

    It?s a reward and they are more likely to repeat it which may lead to eating disorders. Then there is social learning theory which is learning through observation and imitation. This is when you look at a role models behaviour, if they are being rewarded the individual may go down the same route as the role model is seen as successful (vicarious reinforcement). This theory can also be linked to eating disorders as exposure of young girls to successful thin women in the media. This linked is to pschopathogies because that maladaptive behaviour can also be learnt There is strong research support for the role of learning for example, Watson?s study on little albert demonstrated how phobias

    • Word count: 647
  6. Discussing the multi store model of memory.

    The two main stores in the sensory register are iconic and echoic, iconic memory is coded visually and echoic memory is coded acoustically. Material in the sensory register of lasts very briefly, up to a quarter to a half of a second. The capacity of the sensory register is high depending on the senses. Coding is based on the sense, in order for the information to last- attention is a key process. Short-term memory is known as a limited capacity because it can only withhold a certain number of things before forgetting takes place.

    • Word count: 719
  7. Explain Gibson's bottom up/ direct theory of perception

    Evidence to support Gibson?s Theory comes from Eleanor Gibson who demonstrated how 6 month of infants would refuse to cross over an apparent cliff when their mothers called. This was also the same in day old chicks and goats too suggesting that depth perception was an innate process, supporting Gibson?s theory that perception was a direct and biological process. However, a criticism is that the 6 month infants could have learnt perception in the early months which undermines supporting evidence.

    • Word count: 580
  8. Examine Gregorys Top-Down Indirect Theory

    Supporting research has been conducted into the errors people make due to experience. Brochet had wine experts to taste and then describe white and red wines. Each participant could describe the wine distinctively and explained them both to be different. In truth both wines were the same but the colours were different. This supports Gregory?s theory of perception as their original knowledge of wine influenced them more than the sensory information. Similarly, Bruner et al showed participants false playing cards for instance, black hearts and red clubs.

    • Word count: 730

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • How to Interpret Dreams. Ill discuss several theories on dream interpretation. In an online article published in January 2005 entitled How Dreams Work, Lee Ann Obringer discusses a theory from Sigmund Freud, a leading dream theorist.

    "To sum up, I have discussed dreams according to experts in dream theory, common dream interpretation and how to interpret dreams yourself to better understand dreams and where they come from. The dream I had with my father dying, helped me identify a personal conflict within me that I was torn between, symbolized by the war. And the image of death in my dream helped me see a part of me that I was losing due to the choice I had to make. This new personal insight and inspiration was provided only through dream interpretation. With practice, anyone can learn the language of dreams and what they have to offer."

  • Consider the extent to which the working memory model is an improvement over the multi-store model.

    "The evidence concluded by research into the working memory model, especially that done by Baddeley and Hitch, and their conclusions are hard to explain using the multi-store model of memory. Another reason why the working memory model is an improvement on the multi-store model is because it only has rehearsal taking place in one area instead of it being the most important part as it is in the multi-store model. Also the working memory model supports the evidence we have from brain damaged patients, much better than the multi store model. Shallice and Warrington studied KF, who had a normal LTM, but a damaged STM. However his short term forgetting of auditory stimuli was much larger than his short term forgetting of visual stimuli, i.e. he was able to remember meaningful sounds, but not words. The working memory model is a big improvement over the multi store model, because it is in much more detail, and also has more evidence to support it."

  • Discuss alternative models of memory

    "In conclusion, although research has been found to support and refute both the WMM and the LOP approach, both theories cannot be known for sure if they are correct. The MSM is also at fault, therefore the mystery of our memory still remains; the ghost in the machine, we can observe the actions (machine) but never see inside the mind."

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