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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology
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According to the model, if attention is paid to an external stimulus, an internal thought, or both, then it is stored in the short-term memory. It is mostly stored in auditory form, however other types of encoding are also possible. Short-term memory is also called working memory and relates to what we are thinking about at any given moment in time. It is the memory from which an answer to a question comes out - the output. The presence of the short-term memory store and the auditory encoding is supported by the experiment conducted by Conrad in 1964, where he showed participants sequences of letter at random in a rapid succession, and relied on errors made to create his conclusion.
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This means that the experimental hypothesis was accepted, and the null hypothesis was rejected. Furthermore, these results gave further support for work done by Loftus and Palmer (1974) on leading questions, who showed that slight manipulations in questions can alter eyewitness testimonies. Introduction The increasing demand for accurate and detailed evidence in today's society means that there is a greater dependence on eyewitness testimonies. However, the idea that we are capable of recalling the exact details of a past event has been criticised and contradicted by a number of psychological studies. This investigation aims to measure the accuracy of Eyewitness testimony and discuss the relevance and implications of these findings in today's society.
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research Atkinson & Shiffrin- Multi-Store Model which consists of three parts - sensory, short term and long term stores. Rehearsal is required in order for information to move across stores and retrieval is needed to access the information. If information is not rehearsed it will decay. Description of the working memory model, plus evaluation inc. research Baddeley & Hitch- Working Memory Model which consists of three parts - central executive, phonological loop (store and articulatory control system) and the central executive. Memory in the real world Knowledge of what Eye Witness Testimony (EWT) is- The evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to identifying the perpetrator of the crime.
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This had an unlimited capacity and its duration is up to a lifetime. The LTM is semantically encoded (meaning). Interference may occur for words similar in meaning, and sound or spelling, for example for 2 brothers named Jack and Joe others may get the names mixed up because they have similar meaning and both begin with J and so are stored similarly in the LTM. Research evidence for the existence of sensory memory can be found in the studies of psycholigists Baddeley and Sperling. Baddely (1968) investigated the iconic store. He had the hypothesis that the iconic store is present so we can view things smoothly in one motion, rather than a jumpy one which would make things difficult to see and/or understand.
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The focus of pleasure is the mouth e.g. eating and sucking on a dummy. Some people become fixated on this stage and start to overeat to comfort themselves or start smoking. This could be due to feeding difficulties or separation for a primary care giver. Their adult personality can become dominated by orality. Ainsworth also found a link between childhood attachment style and adult relationships. The Anal stage happens usually between the ages of two and three years. The focus of pleasure is the anus. The child's issue at this stage is on faeces and toilet training.
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Outline and evaluate nature of short term memory using studies e.g. capacity, duration and encoding.3 star(s)
to recall therefore proving that information stored in the LTM is helping to increase STM capacity temporarily, the influence of reading aloud as it causes participants to recall the digits better than if they were recalling them subvocally and rhythmic grouping as if the numbers are grouped together rhythmically, performance is better when participants are recalling digits than if they were recalling them in a monotone. Baddeley et al 1975 created a study to test the capacity of STM with an aim of: 'seeing whether people could remember more short words than long words in a serial recall test, and
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For some researchers the major issue seems to involve the content ("what") of memory research. This is reflected, for example, in the title of Neisser's (1978) leading paper, "Memory: What are the important questions." Thus, everyday memory research has been characterized by its attempt to understand "the sorts of things people do every day" (Neisser, 1991, p. 35), by its choice of topics having "obvious relevance to daily life" (Klatzky, 1991, p. 43), and in particular, by its concern with the practical applications of memory research (e.g., Gruneberg & Morris, 1992).
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He also assumed that the schemas influence what happens at the time of retrieval, but have no effect on what happens at the time of comprehension of a story, other evidence suggests that schemas influence comprehension and retrieval. Brewer and Treyens (1981) investigated the effects of schemas on visual memory by asking their 30 participants, one at a time, to wait in a room for 35 seconds. The findings showed that the participants were most likely to recall the typical office items, for example, items with high schema expectancy, but were less successful at recalling the incompatible items such as the brick; however eight participants recalled the really bizarre item, the skull.
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Piaget and Vygotsky theory. Compare and contrast two theories of cognitive development and discuss how they impact on the contemporary early years practice.3 star(s)
According to Piaget, babies are born with the ability to adapt and learn from the environment. He believed that a child goes through four stages: sensory motor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. Piaget developed his theory of development stages from observing his own three children and many other young children. Sensory motor stage (0 to 2 years): In this stage the child is dependent upon the adult and is completely egocentric. Child learns through sight, sound, touch, smell and taste to identify objects. During this stage children use trial and error as their main tool of findings.
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However when a visual and auditory task was carried out performance was much stronger suggesting there are two separate stores for visual and auditory. The first part to the WMM is the central executive which is described as the part which directs attention to tasks and allocates specific systems to particular tasks. For example if an auditory task is being carried out it directs the use of the auditory store. The central executive (CE) has no storage capacity. It is argued that the description for the CE is vague and doesn't really explain anything furthermore would a directing force work within the memory model or outside it?
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This information supports as it suggests, memory decays rapidly and therefore supports the concept of a store which cannot hold large amounts of memory. It was also centered around the use of sight supporting the sensory aspect of the store. However if this store can only hold memories for such a short amount of time should it be considered a store at all? The short term store (STM), according to the model, is our memory for events in the immediate past (such as ordering drinks at a bar)
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In psychology there are different methods of investigation, these would be observation, survey, clinical (case study), correlation and experimental methods.
An advantage here would be there is no effect on the participant from the observer. A disadvantage would be that the observer is away from the study so they rely on perception which may be inaccurate. The Structured Observation is planned, it watches and records behaviours as they happen in a controlled environment. An advantage here is that it gives a safe place to observe the participant, which in this type is normally a child. A disadvantage to this would be the lack of ecological validity. The Unstructured Observation is not planned; it does the same as the Structured Observation but is set in a natural environment.
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Dement and Kleitman studied 9 participants, 7 of which were male and 2 female adults. These 9 participants reported to the labs just before bedtime and were told to eat normally but avoid caffeine or alcohol. An EEG was attached to the face and scalp to amplify and record signals. Two or more were attached near the eye to record electrical changes caused by eye movement and three or more were attached to the scalp to indicate the depth of sleep. During REM sleep and non-REM sleep, participants were asked to wake up to test their dream recall.
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Behaviourism and Conditioning.Behaviourists believe that all humans are born with no general knowledge in how to behave as they grow up, they believe we learn this through the environment.
There are three types of reinforcement, positive reinforcement, negative reinforcement and punishment. When positive re enforcement Is introduced this becomes a pleasurable feeling which then encourages that behaviour e.g. if a child comes home with a sticker for good listening, praise and reward would then be introduced so the child feels good and carries on with good listening. All three types of re enforcement have a positive outcome in the end but vary on how long the positive outcome takes.
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The child builds schemata, mental patterns which enable the individual to understand and interact with the world. Schemas continue to be built upon and develop as an individual encounters new experiences and their learning increases. In order for schemas to develop, a process of assimilation needs to occur, this involves the understanding of new objects, ideas or situations fitting in with existing knowledge. Accommodation occurs when new information is taken in and an existing schema is modified to absorb this knowledge.
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He then compared both of the levels in these types with healthy controls. His results showed much higher Serotonin levels in those women who were recovering from the binging/purging type. Bailer found the highest levels in women who showed the most anxiety and perfectionism, this suggests that constant and persistent disruption of serotonin levels may lead on to higher anxiety, this then may trigger, and make the patient as risk of AN. However, as the link has been found between these women and anxiety and perfectionism, it is questioned whether the alteration in serotonin levels is due to the eating disorder, or whether it is the symptoms of the anxiety causing the disruption in levels.
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from early childhood * speech and has a good vocabulary * and read and write - doesn't remember doing either The case study of HM who suffered from epilepsy of such severity that it couldn't be controlled by drugs. HM underwent a drastic surgery, surgeons removed the hippocampus (small structure found in both hemispheres of the forebrain) from both sides of his brain. HM's personality and intellect remained intact but his memory was affected. He had no memory for events following the operation.
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The importance of reflecting on what you are doing, as part of the learning process, has been emphasised by many theorists. Reflective Observation is the second stage by Kolb (1984). The other stages include concrete experience, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation. The ability to reflect while doing something (in) and after you have done (on) it has become an important feature of educational practices, and it is highly encouraged. It can be argued that reflective practice needs another person as mentor, because it can be very difficult for one to criticise them selves or to realise that something can be improved.
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however he believed that our STM span is determined on how many chunks of information we remember rather than the number of individual letters or numbers which Jacob believed. Miller found that participants can remember between 5 and 9 chunks of information at any one time. Miller believed that chunks were the basic unit of the STM, he called this "Miller's chunking theory" and disagreed with "Jacobs digit span theory" which he believed was a vague look on the Short term memory.
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Through his experiments he discovered that if a particular neutral stimulus NS; with no inborn reflex response, such as a bell ringing, was combined with an UCS such as food then the dogs would learn to associate that NS with the UCS, and thus the NS would trigger salivation on its own. The NS had now become a conditioned stimulus CS, and the UCS a conditioned reflex CR; stimulus and reflex learned through association. John B. Watson is often referred to as the father of behaviourism.
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Attribution Theory. The main factors in attributing causes are Dispositional Attribution- the behaviour is caused by a characteristic of that person, and Situational Attribution- the behaviour is caused by their physical or social environment.
The results of this information decides if we attribute the behaviour to the person, the situation, or both. For each of the pieces of information, use the example of a person scared of a particular dog. The first piece of information is Consensus. This is the amount that other people have the same behaviour as the person . If lots of people have the same behaviour (e.g. are scared of the same dog) consensus is high. If a very small amount of people have the same behaviour, consensus is low. The second piece of information is Consistency. This is the amount the behaviour has happened in the past.
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One role source of role confusion is the 'maturity gap' that is, being at the same time biologically and sexually mature, but still not having adult social status. Erickson's, Coleman and Hendry (1990) and others argue, that puberty is one of the most important adjustments that adolescents have to make, and their changing body image is central to their overall self image. This may be more difficult transition for girls than for boys. Criticisms: 1) Erickson's theory has been criticised for being based on observations of to restrict a group (white middle class males).
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Learning. Throughout this paper I will explain classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and imitation of modeling.
This is especially true for me. Ever since I can remember I have been afraid of lady bugs. My brother would chase me around with them and tell me they were going to hurt me if one landed on me. After being classically conditioned twelve years ago, I am still afraid of lady bugs. Generalization can also be applied to my fear of lady bugs. Whenever I hear a low buzzing noise I get nervous and want to move away from it as soon as possible.
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One such method of testing this is to castrate various animals. This always leads to a marked decrease in aggression. Furthermore, when testosterone is replaced by hormone therapy in the castrated animals, the aggression of the animal returns to its pre-castration level (Simpson, 2001). This seems to support a causation effect or at least a link between the two. A similar study on cockerels by Berhold found the same effect. More specifically, it seems that androgen stimulation in the early days after birth (up to ten days) causes changes in the neuronal system, which affects the level of aggression of a person through into adulthood.
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The Id is made of two components. Benson (1999, P51) describes the first, Libido, as 'the inborn energy we have that motivates us to survive.' The second component, Freud named Thanatos, and described as the death instinct, expressed through aggression towards self and others. Cardwell et al (1997) explain that the Id's discharge of energy and excitation without regard for consequence is known as primary process thinking. At around two years old the human mind recognises the need to be realistic and plan for the future, rather than surviving on primary instinct.
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