An investigation into the effect of chunking on recall.
An investigation into the effect of chunking on recall Abstract My was to complete a experiment successfully to find out if chunking information affects your memory and to see if Millers theory is correct. I have been using the experimental method as this had many advantages like I could control the variables and I have past experience with writing experiments up. I used fellow class mates to carry out my experiment and were all from the same college and of the same age. My results show that chunking information does help to increase memory in your STM and so I can conclude that Millers theory was correct. Introduction I am going to be investigating if chunking affects your memory. I will be setting up two groups each consisting of 10 people. 1st group will have a letter string, which has 24 letters with no gaps in between; they will all be abbreviations of real things but in just 1 long list. The 2nd group will have the same abbreviations but with gaps in between each abbreviation. Each group will be having the exact same abbreviations to try and keep my experiment as fair as possible. There are two basic types of memory, which in 1890 was discovered by William James. There was knowledge or information, which he believed, lasted for a very short period of time known as STM (short term memory) and there was knowledge or information, which he believed, lasted a long
Describe and Evaluate the Multi-store model of Memory.
Chloe-Louise Applewhite Describe and evaluate the multi-store model of memory? Atkinson and Shiffrins multi-store model consists of three hypothetical stores; the sensory Store, the short term memory and the long term memory. They suggested that that, the Multi-store model (MSM) was linear, there for all information must go through all the stores. They also suggested information enters the system from the environment, through the several stores which are our five senses. They constantly receive information; most of this information doesn’t have much attention paid to it. There for if you focus attention on to the sensory stores; it is then transferred to the Short-term memory (STM) acoustically. Then the Information is then rehearsed; this then helps the information to be transferred from STM to the Long-term memory (LTM) The information in the STM is very fragile and will decay very quickly, there for we can then rehearse information we want to remember. This on the multi-store model (MSM) is called the maintenance rehearsal loop. STM only had the capacity of 7+-2, the duration on STM is only 18-30 seconds. Therefore it you do not rehearse the information it will become displaced quickly by other information. The information that is maintained in STM is encoded verbally. Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) did a study trying to prove that memory can be separated in to three
Describe and evaluate the Multistore Model of Memory.
Describe and evaluate the Multi-Store Model (MMS) of memory. The MMS, described by Atkinson and Shiffrin, states that memory is made up of the sensory store, the short term memory and the long term memory. The sensory store is made up of the eyes, ears, fingers, nose, tongue etc and the corresponding areas of the brain. The sensory stores are constantly receiving information but most of this receives no attention and remains in there for a very brief period. If attention is paid it is transferred to the STM, where it is held in a fragile state and will disappear unless rehearsed. The STM has a very limited capacity (approximately 4 chunks). Information then moves from the STM through maintenance rehearsal to the LTM which has a potentially limitless capacity. Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed a direct relationship between rehearsal in the STM and the strength of the LTM. The MSM supports many observations about memory. There is plenty of evidence for separate STM and LTM stores, such as Glanzer & Cunitz’s serial position effect, and the effects of brain damage (e.g. HM and Clive Wearing) also shows evidence for separate stores. People with Korsakoff ’s syndrome provide support for the model as they can recall the last items in a list (unimpaired recency effect), suggesting an unaffected STM. However, their LTM is very poor. The model has been criticised for being too
Describe and Evaluate the Multistore Model of Memory
Describe and Evaluate the Multistore Model of Memory The multi- store model of memory is an explanation to how memory processes work, we hear, see and feel many things but only a small number are remembered, the model was first introduced by Atkinson and Shiffrin in (1968). They explained that the multi-store model of memory has 3 stages which is sensory memory, short-term memory and long-term memory, this information processing approach to Cognitive Psychology, it is based upon the model of the mind as a computer. Unprocessed data enters the sensory memory from environmental stimuli through the sense organs and is encoded into a ‘mind-friendly’ format, Sperling (1960) showed that the sensory information store has limited capacity, so our attention processes are important in determining what passes onto the short-term memory. In addition, information selected for further processing passes from the sensory memory store into the short-term memory, it is thought that the short-term memory holds information in the form of images, sounds or meanings, information in the short-term memory is kept alive by continual rehearsal of it, an example study for the life-span of the short-term memory was conducted by Peterson and Peterson (1959) in which they gave participants a constant trigram to remember and then a large number. To prevent rehearsal, they counted backwards in threes
Psychological explanations of schizophrenia
Psychological explanations of Schizophrenia (SZ) There are many suggestions that Schizophrenia can be caused by certain psychological factors and stressors. E.g. the more stressful an event the more likely that someone will develop schizophrenic symptoms. Other reasons can be social or cognitive. It is thought that SZ occurs more in people of lower socio-economic stature and this can be explained in 2 ways: low economic status itself has been said to cause high levels of stress due to the poor living conditions and struggle to survive, making those who have the potential to get schizophrenia more likely to show symptoms. It is said that this view is reductionist as it doesn’t take into account the biological factors also even though there is evidence supporting the claims that acute stress can inhibit SZ it is unlikely that Social class and economic stature is the sole cause and it is more likely to be just a contributing factor. It can also be defined with the social drift hypothesis which is where people with SZ can no longer cope with jobs and relationships so drift down the socioeconomic hierarchy. However in 1990 Fox produced a meta-analysis from studies by him and other professionals and found no conclusive evidence for the drift theory. Family relationships are also thought to help develop SZ. Fromm Reichmann (1948) created the term ‘Schizophrenogenic
Memory Test Introduction Research Method: Laboratory experiment Design: Repeated measures Aim Is recall of information improved when it is processed at a deep level rather than a shallow level? Background Research Atkinson and Schifrin proposed that memory can be thought of as a process which memory is divided into structural components including short-term memory (STM) which has a limited duration, and long-term memory (LTM) which has an unlimited duration. According to Atkinson and Schifrin's theory, information is passed from short-term to long-term memory through the process of rehearsal or repetition. Craik and Lockhart projected a different way of interpreting the evidence that short-term and long-term memory, are two different stores. They claimed that the idea of rehearsing information did not clarify whether or not the information gets stored in LTM. For information to be stored in LTM then the materials have to be deeply processed; however if the material is processed briefly then it would not be registered in LTM. Craik and Lockhart say that memory is a by-product of the way we process information. According to Craik and Lockhart, the more deeply we process information, the more likely we are to remember it. The three levels of processing they describe are: Level 1 - Structured, or Shallow level Visual - What the word looks like E.g. Is the word
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Maslow's Hierarchy Of Needs. Introduction. In the 1950's a psychologist called Abraham Maslow conducted research on the understanding of human motivation. In 1954 he suggested there were two sets of human needs, one set related to basic survival needs such as homeostasis, physiological needs and safety. The second set he believed focused on self -actualisation, this particular need is where he thought an individual realised their full potential. (Cardwell et al, 2000). On the basis of his theory he arranged these various needs in a hierarchy, starting with the basic survival needs and at the very top the self-actualisation need. (As pictured below). Maslow's original Hierarchy of needs. (www.outlandishjosh.com/files/400px-Maslow's_hierarchy_of_needs.svg.png) He suggested that each need had to be satisfied first before moving on to the next stage of the hierarchy, and the higher up the hierarchy an individual went, the more difficult it was to satisfy the needs, he suggested this was because the higher up the hierarchy an individual went the needs became psychological rather than physiological, they also became long term needs rather than short term needs. (Cardwell et al, 2000). Maslow suggested that many individuals would never reach our full potential and would therefore never reach self-actualisation. How the Hierarchy Works. Each individual starts at the
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model
Long term memory Capacity: unlimited Duration: unlimited Encoding: semantic Forgetting interference/decay Short term memory Capacity: limited Duration: very limited Encoding: acoustic Forgetting displacement Sensory memory Capacity: unlimited Duration: very limited Encoding: senses Decay Retrieval Rehearsal Environmental stimuli Maintenance rehearsal Information retrieval Attention The multi-store model was suggested by Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968). They imagined memory as a flow chart. At each stage of the process, there are limitations in terms of Capacity, duration and encoding. Sensory memory: a set of limited capacity and holds information for a very brief period of time. Short-term memory: a temporary store where small amounts of information can be kept for brief periods. The information can be lost easily. Long-term memory: a permanent store where limitless amounts of information can be stored for a long time. Capacity: the amount of information that can be held in the memory at one time. Duration: the length of time that memories can be held Encoding: the way that the information is represented in the memory store e.g. sound, meaning or image. Many experiments tested how long information could last in the short-term memory, Jacobs/miller for example conducted an experiment with letters, they randomly listed 15 letters and asked
Outline and evaluate the Multi Store Model of memory.
Outline and evaluate the Multi Store Model of memory. (12 marks) Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) proposed the multi store model of memory in an attempt to explain the workings of our memory system. They proposed that memory consists of three stores, and information flows from one store to another. At each store there are constraints or limitations in terms of capacity, duration and encoding. According to the model, information in the environment first registers in the sensory store, where probably we wouldn’t even notice it. If attention is paid to it, the information flows along to the short term memory store, the short term store has a limited capacity of 7 give or take 2 items (Miller) on average, so cannot hold lots of information and a duration (how long it can retain the information for) of no more than half a minute. According to the model, for information to pass to our long term memory, we must rehearse it. Once it is in the long term memory it cannot be lost, except due to damage to the brain, and can be retrieved at any time. The long term memory store is said to have an unlimited capacity and duration. This has been tested and proven. Bahrlick et al asked participants of various ages to put names to faces from their high school year book. It was found that even 48 years on, people were about 70% correct. This is important as, although this is a strength for the
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory.
Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory. The Multi- store model (MSM) of memory was proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin suggests that the memory is a flow of information through a system in a linear pattern. It consists of 3 distinct stages which are sensory memory (SM), short- term memory (STM) and long- term memory (LTM). the environmental stimulus first enters the SM in an uncoded form where it stays for a very brief period of time. In order for information to be passed to into STM, attention is vital. The STM can store ±7 items for approximately 15- 30 seconds acoustically. Information held in the STM is in a fragile state either because it simply decays or because new information comes along and displaces the old information if not rehearsed. If the information is sufficiently rehearsed it can enter LTM where limited information can be stored for as long as lifetime through semantic coding. One of the strengths of the MSM is that it is supported by neurological case studies. The MSM claims that STM and LTM are two separate store, which is supported by the case study of Clive Wearing. He had his hippocampus removed due to a viral infection which meant that he could not move information from STM into LTM. However, due to being a case study we must be cautious as it is concerned with a particular individual and therefore cannot be generalised to a whole