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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology
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To use a telephone number as an example, we will most probably repeat a number to ourselves in order to remember it, the longer we repeat the number, the longer it will stay in our memory. If we repeat the number for more than 30 seconds it is likely that it will transfer into our long-term memory. When we introduce information into our short-term memory it is called encoding, this is often done using an acoustic or echoic code, we 'practice' this information in our memory by remembering the sound of it.
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Peterson & Peterson (1959) found it to be 6-12 seconds, whilst Atkinson & Shiffrin (1968) and Hebb (1949) state it is 30 seconds. LTM capacity has no known limit as Barnyard & Grayson (1996) pose the question, "Can you imagine your long term memory being full?" and its capacity can be minutes to potentially a lifetime. In both STM and LTM there are 3 main theories for each as to why we forget things. For STM the theories are: Displacement - existing information is replaced by newly received information when the storage capacity is full (Waugh and Norman, 1965)
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dissimilar * Write them in serial order * Made errors on recall * Convert visually present material to an acoustic code in STM and then find it hard to recognise between words that sound the same * Reliable ? lab * Lacks ecological validity Baddeley ? LTM Encoding * List of short familiar words * Acoustically similar and dissimilar * Semantically similar and dissimilar * Write them down * Words that sounded similar were harder to recall * STM codes acoustically * Reliable ? lab * Lacks ecological validity Working memory model Baddeley and Hitch * Explains in more detail
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The genes identified affect bodily processes which could become targets for treatments. Nee reported on a family with 531 family members. 53 were identified as suffering from the disease, which suggests that there is some contributing genetic factor. However it could be said that it is due to the environment which they all share, which are the same conditions, same social class and quality of living. It then makes it hard to differentiate between nature and nurture. Hendrie studied Yoruba people of Nigeria and compared then with Americans. Both had similar frequency of genes linked to AD but the Yoruba suffered much less from the disorder.
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Research into memory and forgetting has found evidence that there is a relationship between recall,forgetting and our emotional state.
President Kennedy whereas black P's had FBM's of the assassinations of black people for e.g. Martin Luther King. This supports FBM's as it showed that emotional arousal,huge significance and persona relevance are important factors in the formation of FBM's. It was also suggested by Brown and Kulik that the ability to form FBM's would be useful for our ancestors for activities such as hunting and gathering to survive. This would be an evolutionary advantage as there would be trial and error and the errors would have caused trauma which in turn led to a FBM so the error would not be attempted again.
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The ACP is known as the inner voice and it rehearses information verbally and has a capacity of about 2 seconds. It can be thought of as the system used to mentally rehearse information such as the rehearsal mentally of a phone number. The visuo-spatial sketch pad: this is used when you have a plan a spatial task. When imagining an object and rotating it your VSSP is being used. It uses a visual code representing information in the form of its features such as size, shape and colour.
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Multi-Store Model of Memory. In this essay we will be looking at what research and evidence there is to support the model
Murdock (1962) presented patients with a list of words, which they then had to recall. Experiments show that when participants are presented with the list, they tend to remember the first few (primacy effect) and last few words (recency effect) and are more likely to forget those in the middle (McLeod, simplypsychology.org). The primacy effect occurs because the first few items have already been rehearsed and transferred to LTM, whereas the recency effect occurs as the last few numbers are still being held in the STM.
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process of learning through which an initially neutral stimulus, such as the ticking of a metronome, comes to elicit a particular response, such as salivation, as a consequence of being paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulus, such as food? (para. 1). Classical conditioning is a spontaneous or reflexive kind of learning that requires a stimulus that obtains the capability to induce a response that was initially evoked by a different stimulus. Classical conditioning then couples that neutral stimulus with the stimulus that evokes a desired reflex, and the stimulus that brings forth the desired reflex is presented even when the reflex does not occur.
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The first explanation of prosopagnosia is that it is a result of impaired neurology. Prosopagnosia has been associated with damage to the fusiform face area, especially the one in the right hemisphere, for two reasons. The first reason being that prosopagnosics typically have damage to this brain area and second, the fusiform gyrus is generally more active when individuals are engaged in face, rather than object recognition. For example, Downing et al (2006) reported that the fusiform face area responded significantly more strongly to faces than either to scenes, or 18 object categories such as fruit and tools.
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(Flanagan, 2000) There are three major processes involved in memory: encoding, storage and retrieval. Encoding is the stage where a memory trace is created. Once encoded the trace is then stored within the memory system. In STM the information tends to be encoded acoustically i.e. it is represented as sounds. In LTM the information is generally encoded systematically i.e. data is represented by its meaning. In STM, rehearsal is used to keep memory more active, repeating something over and over to try to commit it to STM. There are several models of memory; representations of how memory works.
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The second stage in the MSM is the short-term memory (STM). It is suggested that the STM has a capacity of 7 +/- 2 and a duration of around about 18 seconds. The type of encoding that the STM uses is acoustic though not exclusively so and has been known to use visual encoding as well. To transfer information from the STM to the LTM it needs to be rehearsed, if rehearsal is prevented then information can be lost through either decay or displacement. The third and final stage of the MSM is the long-term memory (LTM).
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Also, because the experiment was controlled, it means there was a good control of extraneous variables, which allows a causal link to be made between the question type and the answers participants gave to the questions and therefore allowing them to conclude that it was the words used in the questions that caused the differences in recall. The experiment was an independent measures design, which is an advantage, as this experimental design means that there are no order effects. This means participants are not going to perform differently due to factors such as boredom or fatigue because of the order in which the conditions are performed, as they are only participating in one condition.
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The key element of the W.M.M is the central executive. This directs attention to particular tasks, determining at any time how ?resources? are allocated to tasks. The ?resources? are a combination of three slave systems. The central executive has a limited capacity and so cannot attend to too many things at once. One of the components to the slave systems is the phonological loop. This deals with auditory information and preserves the order of information. Baddeley (1986) divided this slave system into the phonological store and an articulatory process. The phonological holding the words you here and the articulatory process for words that are seen or heard.
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The last sets of words are likely to be circulating around the STM and so P?s would be likely to recall them than middle words. This supports the idea that there are distinct stores within Memory. CLIVE WEARING He had brain surgery and his STM was impaired. He was no longer able to make new LTM entries. This supports the Multi-Store model as it suggests that in order to create LTM you need to go through the STM; and as Clive Wearing?s STM is impaired this is not possible.
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The first known case of a psychologist testifying in a court of law as an expert witness was in 1896. Albert Von Schrenk-Notzing testified at the trial of a man accused of murdering three women and used his research on memory to explain how the publicity before the case could have altered the recollection of witnesses during the court proceedings. In 1901 German psychologist William Stern carried out memory studies. The participants were asked to look at a picture for 45 seconds and then recall what they saw.
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