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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 24
  • Peer Reviewed essays 19
  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and Evaluate 2 Models Of Memory

    4 star(s)

    According to the model, if attention is paid to an external stimulus, an internal thought, or both, then it is stored in the short-term memory. It is mostly stored in auditory form, however other types of encoding are also possible. Short-term memory is also called working memory and relates to what we are thinking about at any given moment in time. It is the memory from which an answer to a question comes out - the output. The presence of the short-term memory store and the auditory encoding is supported by the experiment conducted by Conrad in 1964, where he showed participants sequences of letter at random in a rapid succession, and relied on errors made to create his conclusion.

    • Word count: 1840
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Measurements of Accuracy of Eyewitness Testimonies

    4 star(s)

    This means that the experimental hypothesis was accepted, and the null hypothesis was rejected. Furthermore, these results gave further support for work done by Loftus and Palmer (1974) on leading questions, who showed that slight manipulations in questions can alter eyewitness testimonies. Introduction The increasing demand for accurate and detailed evidence in today's society means that there is a greater dependence on eyewitness testimonies. However, the idea that we are capable of recalling the exact details of a past event has been criticised and contradicted by a number of psychological studies. This investigation aims to measure the accuracy of Eyewitness testimony and discuss the relevance and implications of these findings in today's society.

    • Word count: 1767
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Psychology Revision Notes - list of major experiments

    3 star(s)

    research Atkinson & Shiffrin- Multi-Store Model which consists of three parts - sensory, short term and long term stores. Rehearsal is required in order for information to move across stores and retrieval is needed to access the information. If information is not rehearsed it will decay. Description of the working memory model, plus evaluation inc. research Baddeley & Hitch- Working Memory Model which consists of three parts - central executive, phonological loop (store and articulatory control system) and the central executive. Memory in the real world Knowledge of what Eye Witness Testimony (EWT) is- The evidence provided in court by a person who witnessed a crime, with a view to identifying the perpetrator of the crime.

    • Word count: 1825
  4. Marked by a teacher

    Outline and Evaluate the Multi Store Model of Memory.

    3 star(s)

    This had an unlimited capacity and its duration is up to a lifetime. The LTM is semantically encoded (meaning). Interference may occur for words similar in meaning, and sound or spelling, for example for 2 brothers named Jack and Joe others may get the names mixed up because they have similar meaning and both begin with J and so are stored similarly in the LTM. Research evidence for the existence of sensory memory can be found in the studies of psycholigists Baddeley and Sperling. Baddely (1968) investigated the iconic store. He had the hypothesis that the iconic store is present so we can view things smoothly in one motion, rather than a jumpy one which would make things difficult to see and/or understand.

    • Word count: 1005
  5. Marked by a teacher

    Outline & Evaluate the psychodynamic model of abnormality

    3 star(s)

    The focus of pleasure is the mouth e.g. eating and sucking on a dummy. Some people become fixated on this stage and start to overeat to comfort themselves or start smoking. This could be due to feeding difficulties or separation for a primary care giver. Their adult personality can become dominated by orality. Ainsworth also found a link between childhood attachment style and adult relationships. The Anal stage happens usually between the ages of two and three years. The focus of pleasure is the anus. The child's issue at this stage is on faeces and toilet training.

    • Word count: 1420
  6. Marked by a teacher

    Outline and evaluate nature of short term memory using studies e.g. capacity, duration and encoding.

    3 star(s)

    to recall therefore proving that information stored in the LTM is helping to increase STM capacity temporarily, the influence of reading aloud as it causes participants to recall the digits better than if they were recalling them subvocally and rhythmic grouping as if the numbers are grouped together rhythmically, performance is better when participants are recalling digits than if they were recalling them in a monotone. Baddeley et al 1975 created a study to test the capacity of STM with an aim of: 'seeing whether people could remember more short words than long words in a serial recall test, and

    • Word count: 1237
  7. Marked by a teacher

    Memory research

    3 star(s)

    For some researchers the major issue seems to involve the content ("what") of memory research. This is reflected, for example, in the title of Neisser's (1978) leading paper, "Memory: What are the important questions." Thus, everyday memory research has been characterized by its attempt to understand "the sorts of things people do every day" (Neisser, 1991, p. 35), by its choice of topics having "obvious relevance to daily life" (Klatzky, 1991, p. 43), and in particular, by its concern with the practical applications of memory research (e.g., Gruneberg & Morris, 1992).

    • Word count: 1395
  8. Peer reviewed

    To what extent does research support the view that eyewitness testimony is unreliable?

    3 star(s)

    He also assumed that the schemas influence what happens at the time of retrieval, but have no effect on what happens at the time of comprehension of a story, other evidence suggests that schemas influence comprehension and retrieval. Brewer and Treyens (1981) investigated the effects of schemas on visual memory by asking their 30 participants, one at a time, to wait in a room for 35 seconds. The findings showed that the participants were most likely to recall the typical office items, for example, items with high schema expectancy, but were less successful at recalling the incompatible items such as the brick; however eight participants recalled the really bizarre item, the skull.

    • Word count: 1430
  9. Peer reviewed

    Piaget and Vygotsky theory. Compare and contrast two theories of cognitive development and discuss how they impact on the contemporary early years practice.

    3 star(s)

    According to Piaget, babies are born with the ability to adapt and learn from the environment. He believed that a child goes through four stages: sensory motor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. Piaget developed his theory of development stages from observing his own three children and many other young children. Sensory motor stage (0 to 2 years): In this stage the child is dependent upon the adult and is completely egocentric. Child learns through sight, sound, touch, smell and taste to identify objects. During this stage children use trial and error as their main tool of findings.

    • Word count: 1122

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • How to Interpret Dreams. Ill discuss several theories on dream interpretation. In an online article published in January 2005 entitled How Dreams Work, Lee Ann Obringer discusses a theory from Sigmund Freud, a leading dream theorist.

    "To sum up, I have discussed dreams according to experts in dream theory, common dream interpretation and how to interpret dreams yourself to better understand dreams and where they come from. The dream I had with my father dying, helped me identify a personal conflict within me that I was torn between, symbolized by the war. And the image of death in my dream helped me see a part of me that I was losing due to the choice I had to make. This new personal insight and inspiration was provided only through dream interpretation. With practice, anyone can learn the language of dreams and what they have to offer."

  • Consider the extent to which the working memory model is an improvement over the multi-store model.

    "The evidence concluded by research into the working memory model, especially that done by Baddeley and Hitch, and their conclusions are hard to explain using the multi-store model of memory. Another reason why the working memory model is an improvement on the multi-store model is because it only has rehearsal taking place in one area instead of it being the most important part as it is in the multi-store model. Also the working memory model supports the evidence we have from brain damaged patients, much better than the multi store model. Shallice and Warrington studied KF, who had a normal LTM, but a damaged STM. However his short term forgetting of auditory stimuli was much larger than his short term forgetting of visual stimuli, i.e. he was able to remember meaningful sounds, but not words. The working memory model is a big improvement over the multi store model, because it is in much more detail, and also has more evidence to support it."

  • Discuss alternative models of memory

    "In conclusion, although research has been found to support and refute both the WMM and the LOP approach, both theories cannot be known for sure if they are correct. The MSM is also at fault, therefore the mystery of our memory still remains; the ghost in the machine, we can observe the actions (machine) but never see inside the mind."

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