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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology
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- Marked by Teachers essays 24
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In this essay I am going to contrast and compare three approaches in psychology which are behaviourist, cognitive, and humanist. I am going to show how these psychological approaches contribute to the understanding of the human mind and behaviour.4 star(s)
Both transitions and changes make people experience different emotions. A person may either become stressed or even depressed, have negative feelings of him, or became withdrawn from others. However that way an individual reacts will depend on the transition or change itself, and on the individual whom is going through it. Psychologists believe the way an individual reacts through a moment of transition or change can be explained after an analyse of the individual's past experiences, knowledge, habits, social life, and culture, and application of an appropriated approach in psychology or a combination of approaches in psychology.
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Depth of processing involves elaboration. Organization Organization is another form of deep processing. Research has shown that organization creates a lasting memory like semantic processing. It is implicit rather than explicit memory and no conscious processing needs to take place. Mandler (1967) conducted and experiment in which he gave participants a pack of 52 picture cards, each of which had a word printed on it. Participants were then asked to sort the cards into piles, using anything from two to seven categories, and could go by any system the wished. They were then asked to carry on with the sorting until they came to two identical sorts.
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In a survey of psychologists by Loftus and Loftus (1980), 84% favored the position that stored information is never lost from the memory system, although it may normally be inaccessible. Some evidence in support of this favored position can be found in the studies of Wilder Penfiel and his associates. While treating epileptic patients during 1940s, he was removing the damaged areas in their brains. In order to spot the damaged area he was stimulating the surface of the brain with a weak electrical current.
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The Sensory Memory holds information for a very short time. It takes rapidly passing impressions of light, sound, smell etc. and preserves them just long enough for them to be recognised. It is the attention system. Any information, which we pay attention to, is selected, and is then processed further into the STM. All other information is disregarded at this moment. The STM contains only the small amount of information that is actually in active use at any one time. Verbal information is encoded at this stage in terms of its sounds.
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Cue dependent Forgetting. This experiment investigates Tulvings theory of cue dependent forgetting, with a directional hypothesis stating that context of the encoding setting would act as a cue to participants accessibility to memory, and allow the
higher recall rate in the same environment that supports what previous studies suggest This experiment was designed to help investigate the Cue-dependent forgetting theory by Tulvin. Cue-dependent forgetting is defined as: information is encoded and available in the brain but not accessible due to lack for retrieval cue. A retrieval cue is a stimulus that can be either external or internal, that allows the brain to access or recall stored information. It can be presented through any of the five senses, taste, see, hear, smell, or touch.
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Mineka et al (1980), however, found that wild-reared monkeys showed considerable fear of real, model and toy snakes, whereas laboratory reared monkeys only showed a mild response to the snakes. Mineka et al therefore concluded that observational-conditioning is involved in the origins of many human and non-human primates' fears and phobias. However, Bennett-Levy and Marteau challenged this finding as they claim that the laboratory-reared monkeys demonstrated the most fear of the real snake and that this was because the real snake showed a significant amount of movement.
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Stroop identified a large increase on the time taken by participants to complete the NCW tasks, an effect still occurred despite continued practice at each task. There are two theories that may explain the stroop effect. These are: > Speed of processing Theory: (Appendix A) > Selective Attention Theory: (Appendix B) Since the development of the Stroop task, it has utilized the Stroop effect to investigate aspects of such varied psychological disorders as ADHD (Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder), Schizophrenia, and Anorexia.
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A lot of research has been done to determine whether short-term memory works better in the morning or afternoon. In a study, 16-18-year-olds (sixth form students of Battersea park school) were administered to take part in a word test to assess their shor
They had tested the article (of researchers at the Harvard Medical School), which is called a key experiment. It was found that a Micro RNA and the accompanying messenger RNA exist at the contact point of synapses. What are Micro- and messenger RNA? It is a different form of the Ribonucleic acid. As a messenger RNA (mRNA), one is already more familiar with for a long time: It functions as a messenger, transports a message of the DNA - often, but not always from a gene - out of the cell nucleus into the cytoplasm. There the message is translated often, but not always into a protein.
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Miller (1965) argued that human short term memory has a span of approximately seven items, plus or minus two. Finally, long term memory is the permanent memory system which has a virtually unlimited capacity but takes longer to retrieve and to store (Baddeley, 1990). Evidence suggests that short-term memory is primarily phonological involving an articulatory loop of rehersal in working memory (Baddeley, 1990), whereas long term memory relies primarily on the semantic code (Baddeley, 1990). It is well known that there is both a primacy and a recency effects in short term memory. This means that there is an improved recall of words at both the start and at the end of the presentation list whereas there will be more information lost from the middle of the presentation.
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Godden and Baddeley ( 1975) set out to test learning and recall in two different environmental situations. The participants were deep see divers, and the experiment compared memory both an land and underwater in diving equipment. The experiment tool place by the side of a swimming pool (land) and under ten feet of water in the pool. There were four sets of experiments, including two controls, each using the task of learning a list of forty words and attempting to recall them. Recall was better when it took place in the same environment as learning, because physical cues aid retrieval.
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The psychologist must not withhold information or mislead participants and the ethics state intentional deception should be avoided. The participants should be fully debriefed at the end of the research so that they can complete their understanding of the nature of the research, and it must also be emphasised to the participants that they have the right to withdraw from the experiment at any time. All data obtained must be treated as confidential unless otherwise agreed in advance, and all studies based on observation must respect the privacy and psychological well-being of the participants.
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Jean Piaget - Piaget's Cognitive developmental theory There are four stages of development. Stage 1 - Sensori-Motor Stage - Between 0-2 years - * This is when the child develops through the use of automatic reflexes and develops into purposeful actions. * Most of the information comes in through their senses. * During this stage the child lacks object permanence * It only starts to develop at 9 months - Separation anxiety. * At this stage, the child is egocentric * Piaget mentions 6 stages within this stage where as they develop their thinking becomes more and more complex.
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Participants An opportunity sample of 20 males and females took part in the study. For each condition 10 participants took part. Participants were taken from the sixth form at St Mark's School. The participants' ages ranged from 16 - 20. Those participants who were available at the time took part in the study. Each participant took the experiment individually at convenient times for themselves. Materials A list of 20 emotional and neutral words were collected (see appendix for full list of words) for each condition. In both conditions the words were presented separately on a slide on the PowerPoint presentation.
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For a person to be diagnosed as schizophrenic they must exhibit two or more of the following symptoms, each of which must have been present for a significant period of time over a 1-month period: hallucinations, disorganised speech, grossly disorganised or catatonic (rigid) behaviour; and negative symptoms (lack of emotion, lack of motivation, speaking very little or uninformatively); and only one symptom is needed if the delusions are bizarre, or if the hallucinations consist of a voice commenting on the individuals behaviour.
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* In this sense consolidation of memory traces prevents their forgetting. * Jost's Law- recently stored information will be forgotten faster than information stored earlier. --- If older memories have more time to consolidate they may be less vulnerable to decay and interference than newly formed memories. Decay and Interference Theory * According to the Decay Theory, forgetting occurs inevitably with the passing of time. * Thus, it is the amount of time that determines forgetting; the longer time passes between a study and recall stage, the greater forgetting. Early research suggests that interference plays a larger role in forgetting than decay over time.
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The sampling method used in this investigation was Non-Random Opportunity Sampling. The results gathered from this investigation were: the percentage of incorrect answers given by participants when presented with the definite article was 83.3% and the percentage of incorrect answers given by participants when presented with the indefinite article was 16.6%. The Alternative Hypothesis was accepted and the Null Hypothesis was rejected. The conclusion that is drawn from the results of this experiment is that overall peoples' memories are mislead by the use of the definite article. When participants were presented with the definite article there were significantly more incorrect answers given, which is what would be suggested by Loftus et al's research.
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Wickelgren (1964), observed that when trying to recall a number, for instance a telephone number, recall improved if the numbers where grouped by pausing briefly after every three digits. Typically, the first and the last number in a group were better remembered than the middle digit. Therefore, 791 862 534 would be better remembered than 79 18 62 53 2. However, is it better remembered because of the number of digits in a group or the total number of groups?
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Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968,1971) developed the multi-store memory model. This is made up of the sensory memory, short term memory and long term memory. Firstly information is detected by the senses and entered into the sensory memory and can be kept here if rehearsed. If we attend to this information it is then entered into the short term memory which According to Miller can hold 7 +/- 2 items and can hold the information unrehearsed for up to 30 seconds.
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However there are some factors that need to be considered when conducting laboratory experiments for instance participants may change their behaviour if they are trying to guess or conform to experimenter's expectations. An example of this could be that participants may give answers that they know to be incorrect during this experiment, which would affect the validity of the results. This is called demand characteristics and can be to the experimenter's detriment. To avoid this, the true purpose of the experiment was not revealed until the debriefing at the end of the experiment.
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Can we prove the existence of the rehearsal loop by blocking rehearsal time with an interference task?
thought about more, taking into account the amount of 'work' that is put into processing the information received. From research they discovered that the deeper the processing required the longer and more durable the memory is likely to be. They also identified what they believed to be three levels of processing: Structural - What something looks like. Phonetic - What something sounds like. Semantic - What something means. From experiments and tests carried out, they found that the deepest level was semantic, and their reason for this, they argued, was because in order to extract the meaning from a word, and to consider it's relevance in a sentence of words, requires a lot of processing.
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(See appendice 1) This was to enable me to steer the sessions in search of a particular valued outcome and to remind myself in case of mental blocks, of where I was at during the process. I decided to use this chart to also make myself notes on the session, trying to annotate key points and to observe body language at potentially critical or turning points in the story. My subject was a white male aged 37 living within the locality.
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The model was created by the assumption that the way in which information is processed may affect the likelihood of it being retrieved at a later time and based on the belief that there are a vast series of varying levels at which information can be processed. Craik & Lockhart had a theory that shallow levels of processing lead in memories that are less likely to be retrieved, whereas deeper levels of processing lead to more resilient retrieval of memories. This approach is based on three levels of processing: 1. Case of the word 2. Sound of the word 3.
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An investigation about retrieval failure in memory (retrieval cues) whether participants can recall more words by free recall or by cued recall
Introduction Memory plays a vital part in our everyday life. However how do we choose or remember certain things and forget others? To be able answer a question such as, "what was the weather like yesterday?" you must have stored information that happened in the day (retrieval cues) that help you remember what the weather was like. The 3 main stages of the basis of learning and memory are encoding, storage and retrieval. Tulving and Pearlstone investigated this theory, they made participants study 48 words, from 12 different categories e.g. animals, food etc, the words were read out, but participants were told they did not need to remember the categories.
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Background Material A pilot study was carried out on two sixth form students at my school. One memorised the categorised words, and the other memorised the random words. They both recalled 8 out of 16 words. As a result of their feedback the amount of time to memorise the list increased to 20 seconds and the amount of time to recall the list increased to 20 seconds, rather than 10 seconds. The theory involved in this experiment is the levels of processing theory.
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The average recall of the trigram was 80% after 3 seconds but dropped to 10% after 18 seconds. This is because the counting task interfered with rehearsing the trigram and caused forgetting. Rationale The study that is most similar to the this study is the Peterson and Peterson study it is similar to mine as we are both testing memory recall and how memory recall is affected by retroactive interference. Peterson and Peterson used interference of counting backwards in threes but in this experiment music will be acting as interference after learning the list of words.
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