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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology

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  • Marked by Teachers essays 24
  • Peer Reviewed essays 19
  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this essay I am going to contrast and compare three approaches in psychology which are behaviourist, cognitive, and humanist. I am going to show how these psychological approaches contribute to the understanding of the human mind and behaviour.

    4 star(s)

    Both transitions and changes make people experience different emotions. A person may either become stressed or even depressed, have negative feelings of him, or became withdrawn from others. However that way an individual reacts will depend on the transition or change itself, and on the individual whom is going through it. Psychologists believe the way an individual reacts through a moment of transition or change can be explained after an analyse of the individual's past experiences, knowledge, habits, social life, and culture, and application of an appropriated approach in psychology or a combination of approaches in psychology.

    • Word count: 2492
  2. Marked by a teacher

    Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing theory.

    4 star(s)

    Depth of processing involves elaboration. Organization Organization is another form of deep processing. Research has shown that organization creates a lasting memory like semantic processing. It is implicit rather than explicit memory and no conscious processing needs to take place. Mandler (1967) conducted and experiment in which he gave participants a pack of 52 picture cards, each of which had a word printed on it. Participants were then asked to sort the cards into piles, using anything from two to seven categories, and could go by any system the wished. They were then asked to carry on with the sorting until they came to two identical sorts.

    • Word count: 2805
  3. Marked by a teacher

    Are memories permanent and unalterable?

    4 star(s)

    In a survey of psychologists by Loftus and Loftus (1980), 84% favored the position that stored information is never lost from the memory system, although it may normally be inaccessible. Some evidence in support of this favored position can be found in the studies of Wilder Penfiel and his associates. While treating epileptic patients during 1940s, he was removing the damaged areas in their brains. In order to spot the damaged area he was stimulating the surface of the brain with a weak electrical current.

    • Word count: 2311

Conclusion analysis

Good conclusions usually refer back to the question or title and address it directly - for example by using key words from the title.
How well do you think these conclusions address the title or question? Answering these questions should help you find out.

  1. Do they use key words from the title or question?
  2. Do they answer the question directly?
  3. Can you work out the question or title just by reading the conclusion?
  • How to Interpret Dreams. Ill discuss several theories on dream interpretation. In an online article published in January 2005 entitled How Dreams Work, Lee Ann Obringer discusses a theory from Sigmund Freud, a leading dream theorist.

    "To sum up, I have discussed dreams according to experts in dream theory, common dream interpretation and how to interpret dreams yourself to better understand dreams and where they come from. The dream I had with my father dying, helped me identify a personal conflict within me that I was torn between, symbolized by the war. And the image of death in my dream helped me see a part of me that I was losing due to the choice I had to make. This new personal insight and inspiration was provided only through dream interpretation. With practice, anyone can learn the language of dreams and what they have to offer."

  • Consider the extent to which the working memory model is an improvement over the multi-store model.

    "The evidence concluded by research into the working memory model, especially that done by Baddeley and Hitch, and their conclusions are hard to explain using the multi-store model of memory. Another reason why the working memory model is an improvement on the multi-store model is because it only has rehearsal taking place in one area instead of it being the most important part as it is in the multi-store model. Also the working memory model supports the evidence we have from brain damaged patients, much better than the multi store model. Shallice and Warrington studied KF, who had a normal LTM, but a damaged STM. However his short term forgetting of auditory stimuli was much larger than his short term forgetting of visual stimuli, i.e. he was able to remember meaningful sounds, but not words. The working memory model is a big improvement over the multi store model, because it is in much more detail, and also has more evidence to support it."

  • Discuss alternative models of memory

    "In conclusion, although research has been found to support and refute both the WMM and the LOP approach, both theories cannot be known for sure if they are correct. The MSM is also at fault, therefore the mystery of our memory still remains; the ghost in the machine, we can observe the actions (machine) but never see inside the mind."

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