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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology
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- Marked by Teachers essays 24
- Peer Reviewed essays 19
Define short-term memory and describe the main factors that influence the number of items recalled from short-term memory. Evaluate Nairne's theory relative to traditional theories, clearly stating your criteria for evaluation.4 star(s)
The capacity of short-term memory has been assessed using the techniques of digit span and the recency effect in free recall (Eysenck and Keane 2002 ). In the nineteenth century the capacity of immediate memory preoccupied a number of theorists (Baddeley 1999 ). Take for example the work of William Hamilton. He observed that if someone threw a handful of marbles on the floor, the maximum number to be perceived with reasonable accuracy would be about seven (Baddeley 1999 ).
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(Cardwell, 1996, p153). Atkinson and Shiffrin (1968) suggested that memory is made up of a series of stores. One is the sensory information store (SIS); the next one is the short-term memory (STM) and the long-term memory (LTM). The stores differ in their encoding, storage and retrieval characteristics. (See Fig 1.) The SIS incoming information is registered by the senses and held in the system until the image fades. This information is held as a sensation in a sensory system e.g. visual system.
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Describe the application of behaviorist perspectives in health and social care. Describe the application of psychodynamic perspectives in health and social care.
The organism learns to link a behavior with a positive event, and thus begins to repeat the behavior. When a child has persistent a tantrums it is an outreach to there carer for an attention weather they want something or can't get what they want. In this case operant behavior is occurring on both sides being the carer and the child. The child may have a tantrum if they want some sweets and there carer has said no. if the child continues to have a tantrum the carer will them give into the child and but them some sweets.
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Twenty participants were split into two groups and were asked to observe 16 magazine adverts. Each participant in each group was asked to recall the adverts they were shown in the order they believed they saw them. Both groups viewed the same advertisements but they were shown in different orders to each group. To ensure the most valid results, adverts which came in the middle (positions 5-12) of the block for the first group (Group A) were placed in primacy and recency positions (positions 1-4 and 13-16) for the second group (group B). The results of the experiment showed there was a greater than 5% difference between condition A (primacy and recency positions 1-4 and 13-16)
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An experiment to investigation the effect of sorting words by their meaning and sorting words by their font style on the number of words correctly recalled.
Introduction When trying to learn a specific piece of information teachers always discourage students from copying the information out of a textbook because it is possible for the student to read the text and write down the information 'word perfect' and still not know what the text is about. Whereas, when a student reads the text and then writes it down in his/her own words they have to understand the information, and therefore, they are far more likely to remember it because they link it to information, which has been previously stored in their long-term memory and so are processing it at a deeper level.
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INTRODUCTION Having worked in a voluntary basis in the community and various groups, I believed it is imperative that this research project looked at the view of counselling from the clients perspective. Individuals may come to counselling by being referred, or identifying the need for help themselves. Often, situations such as bereavement, redundancy, bullying, harassment, mental health, family or relationship difficulties may have contributed to the decision. My intentions are to collate views on counselling and analyse the outcome, 50 questionnaires were distributed 42 were returned.
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Investigate the effects of Imagery on Memory recall: Visual Aid & Memory Recall Introduction "Memory is the process by which we retain information about events that have happened in the past."1 Short-term memory is memory for instant events. STM lasts for a very short time disappear unless they are rehearsed. STM store has limited duration and limited capacity. Long-term memory is memory for events that have happened in the past. LTM store has potentially unlimited duration and capacity. According to Atkinson and Shiffrin (Multi-store model)
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Participants were asked to complete the Stroop Test (set up on PowerPoint) and the time taken to correctly complete it was recorded. Findings The significance level used for this study was p?0.025 as the study used a directional hypothesis. The Critical Value was 45 and the Observed Value is 63.5, thus meaning that the difference between the males and females was not significant. Conclusion As the difference was not significant, the null hypothesis that "there will not be a significant difference between the time taken to complete the Stroop test by female participants and the time taken to complete the Stroop test by male participants" was accepted.
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stated that memory and organization are not only correlated, but organization is a necessary condition for memory. From this viewpoint, it follows that, by definition, any information stored in the memory must be organised somehow. It may also be that the organisation of information upon presentation facilitates its storage, and that if information is not organised, people will attempt to create their own methods of organisation (Tulving, 1968). Categorical clustering is a term coined by Bousfield (1953) in order to describe one type of organisation in learning.
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However, this is not a universal finding. Folkard (1996) studied one individual who had a 30 hour cycle. These findings suggest that there is an endogenous sleep-waking cycle. However, the fact that there is a difference between the endogenous sleep-waking cycle and the normal sleep-waking cycle indicates that external cues such as changes in light and dark also play a role in entraining our biological clock. Research has been carried out into endogenous factors such as the involvement of the hormone melatonin in the sleep-waking cycle. Schochat et al (1977) conducted a study where male participants spent 29 hours in a sleep laboratory.
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Schiffrin and Schneider (1977) pioneered research in this area. They found that automatic processes are inflexible and hard to change i.e. once they are learnt it is difficult to alter them. Norman and Schallice (1986) argue that automatic tasks are preformed through schemas (a way of organising and storing knowledge, creates a framework for future understanding) and that when an action is preformed the relevant schema has to be used and the other, similar schema controlled using contention scheduling to stop similar schemas being activated. An example of this is if someone goes into a kitchen to make tea then the other schemas relevant to the kitchen, for example a toast making schema must be controlled using contention scheduling.
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These are controlled and automatic processing This was put forward by Schneider and Shiffrin in 1977. It is said that a skill or behaviour is autonomous when the person does not need direct attention. Cycling, typing and driving and many others are behaviours and skills that have said to be autonomous by cognitive psychologists. To test autonomous behaviour, psychologists have to place participants in such a situations where the automatic response it in direct conflict with the desired behaviour. The Stroop effect is a famous example of this type on influence. When a participant is presented with common nouns printed in different colours, it is relatively easy for the participants to name the colour of the ink the noun is printed in.
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Finally, in long-term memory it is put forward that decay and interference (old information interrupting the new- proactive interference, or new information superseding the old- retroactive) are the causes of forgetting. There is various support for Atkinson and Shiffrin's Multi Store Model of memory, including research into encoding, duration and capacity of STM. Their claims are also substantiated from examples of people with severe memory impairment, such as those who have gone through major brain surgery, or simply have suffered an accident that resulted in one form of memory loss.
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A key study into the reconstructive memory and the influence of schemas was performed by Bartlett (1932). He used a folk story to test the effects of unfamiliarity on the participants' recall. Participants, who were all English, were told a traditional North American folk tale known as "The War of the Ghosts". The story used words and ideas that the English participants would not be familiar with, as they would not normally feature in conventional Western stories that they may have previously heard.
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These habits can have serious consequences. For instance, automobile accidents increase dramatically among people with sleep disorders. Sleep disorders also cause problems in the workplace that effect society as a whole. It is commonly know and proofed that not getting enough sleep can affect different people in different ways and depends very much on our daily routine. It can make us irritable, worried or nervous, unable to concentrate or cope with even the simplest of tasks. We may find ourselves feeling drowsy during the day, becoming forgetful or more accident prone than usual.
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Investigation into the relationship between an individuals precieved ugliness, harmfullness and an individuals fear of the animal.
Where as the social submissiveness system becomes important during adolescence because this is when social hierarchy is important. Ohman et al also state that animal phobias originate from the predator defence system. A study into the relationship between fear, and appearance was conducted by Bennett-Levy and Marteau (1984), this study supports Seligman's preparedness hypothesis. Bennett-Levy and Marteau studied 113 participants which were selected from those who attended a local health centre. They split the participants into two groups. Bennett-Levy and Marteau asked the first group to complete a questionnaire based on their fear of animals, they had to rate the animals as harmful or harmless.
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Results in an independent measures design may vary, due to differences between the people in the two groups. Possible confounding variables: 3) Ensure all participants have the same materials to complete their tasks and have the same length of time. 4) Equal mix of male and female participants in both conditions to prevent obscure results. 5) Participants may have taken part in the experiment before or may have studied psychology. 6) Participants may not take the experiment seriously if they know the researcher.
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The results of the investigation support the predictive hypothesis as it was predicted the distraction being music for the period of a minute would prevent the rehearsal of the word list therefore causing some to be forgotten. INTRODUCTION Memory consists of two areas; short-term memory and long-term memory. The short-term memory will be investigated for this theory, and all research carried out will relate to short-term memory. For this study, the experimenter will look at how information is encoded and placed in our memories.
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Those who learned antonyms had an average recall of 1.83 and those who learned the synonyms had the lowest recall of 1.25. This suggests that retroactive interference does occur because it shows that the later material affected the recall of the original material, and the more similar the later material, the greater the interference and the higher level of forgetting. This current coursework is a partial replication of the original research of McGeoch and McDonald (1931) on interference theory. Aim and Hypothesis The aim of this coursework is to partially replicate McGeoch and McDonald's experiment (1931)
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Decay was explanation of forgetting that seemed acceptable. It was proposed by Edward Thorndike (1914) and called his law of disuse. The thrust of his "law" is straightforward: Unless a person continues to access and use the memory representations corresponding to skills and information, those representations decay. Learning processes create memory representations; practice maintains those representations; but they fade with disuse. The decay theory seems in general agreement with the average person's introspections as to how memories are formed and lost, but it proved entirely inadequate as a theory of forgetting.
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and the last10 words (positioned 21-30) of a list will have a higher recall than the middle 10 words (positioned 11-20). Which meant that the null hypothesis was rejected which stated: there will be no significant difference in the words recalled wherever the words are positioned in the list where they are the first 10, the last 10 or the middle 10 words. Any difference will be due to chance. In relation to this experiment it was concluded that the positioning of the words in a list has an effect on the recall of those words from the word list as the first few words and the last few words were remembered and recalled more than the middle words.
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The other basis that theories on forgetting can be based on is accessibility theories these suggest that memories are stored in the LTM and that there are obstacles preventing them from accessing the information and retrieving it. Psychologists have suggested and experimented with a several different reasons to why someone cannot retrieve information that has been previously stored in the memory. The most common are decay, interference, retrieval failure and, lack of consolidation. For example such a study was Godden and Baddeley's accessibility theory called the cue dependency theory about forgetting, which stated that the context in which the information is initially learnt is crucial.
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Participants were presented with six drawings of familiar objects and asked to memorize them. They had to form a mental image of each one and subtract a specified part of the drawing and name the resulting image. Another group were asked to do the same except they were prevented from articulating during the learning stage. They were asked to repeat a meaningless chant. This prevented them form converting the pictorial image into a verbal code. They were more successful in identifying the subtracted image as they were using visual coding. This study links in with the aims of my investigation as the nature of the task may affect the type of coding used and
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Participants who were readily available were chosen. This was the most convenient sampling method for this investigation. The investigation took place in the college canteen. Students were asked whether they would like to take part in an experiment. They were then given the consent form to read, and then sign it if they wished to take part. Thr participant was then taken to a empty table. They were then showed a jar filled with sweets for a maximum time of 2 minutes. Thereafter, they were requested to speak out their estimate and the estimate was recorded. They were then given a debrief sheet to read, and if they had any questions they were free to do so.
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If you look at the Necker cube for any length of time, the cube seems to turn itself inside out. At first we see the cube facing one way but if we keep looking it reverses itself, not only that but this happens whether we want it to or not. This highlights an important part of perception, the idea that no matter what it is we look at we unconsciously guess or form a hypothesis of what we can see.
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