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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology
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It is divided into the phonological store and the articulatory process. The visuospatial sketchpad processes visual and spatial information in a mental space and is divided into the visual cache and the inner scribe. The episodic buffer brings together material from other subsystems into a single memory rather than separate strands. It also provides a link between working memory and LTM. There is empirical evidence to support that working memory has separate components, functionally and anatomically. Support for the WMM comes from Shallice and Warringtonâ€™s (1970) case study on patient KF.
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If attention is paid, information is coded acoustically then transferred to short-term memory. To retain information in short-term memory for a limited time, maintenance rehearsal must take place. Information can then be maintained and transferred to long-term memory through elaborative rehearsal. The information can then be retrieved for use in the short-term memory, once it has been coded semantically in long-term memory. There is empirical evidence to support the rehearsal process outlined in the multistore model.
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dissimilar * Write them in serial order * Made errors on recall * Convert visually present material to an acoustic code in STM and then find it hard to recognise between words that sound the same * Reliable ? lab * Lacks ecological validity Baddeley ? LTM Encoding * List of short familiar words * Acoustically similar and dissimilar * Semantically similar and dissimilar * Write them down * Words that sounded similar were harder to recall * STM codes acoustically * Reliable ? lab * Lacks ecological validity Working memory model Baddeley and Hitch * Explains in more detail
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Cognitive biases can be internal, global or stable. Depressed people use cognitive biases to view the world. A strength is that there is clear evidence for cognitive biases. Clarke found that individuals with panic disorders exaggerate the significance of physical symptoms. In addition, therapy based treatments are effective in treating anxiety disorders and depression e.g. CBT and REBT. A weakness of the approach is the idea of schemata and NATS are vague and unexplained. It?s not clear how irrational thoughts are designed and measured.
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It?s a reward and they are more likely to repeat it which may lead to eating disorders. Then there is social learning theory which is learning through observation and imitation. This is when you look at a role models behaviour, if they are being rewarded the individual may go down the same route as the role model is seen as successful (vicarious reinforcement). This theory can also be linked to eating disorders as exposure of young girls to successful thin women in the media. This linked is to pschopathogies because that maladaptive behaviour can also be learnt There is strong research support for the role of learning for example, Watson?s study on little albert demonstrated how phobias
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The two main stores in the sensory register are iconic and echoic, iconic memory is coded visually and echoic memory is coded acoustically. Material in the sensory register of lasts very briefly, up to a quarter to a half of a second. The capacity of the sensory register is high depending on the senses. Coding is based on the sense, in order for the information to last- attention is a key process. Short-term memory is known as a limited capacity because it can only withhold a certain number of things before forgetting takes place.
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Evidence to support Gibson?s Theory comes from Eleanor Gibson who demonstrated how 6 month of infants would refuse to cross over an apparent cliff when their mothers called. This was also the same in day old chicks and goats too suggesting that depth perception was an innate process, supporting Gibson?s theory that perception was a direct and biological process. However, a criticism is that the 6 month infants could have learnt perception in the early months which undermines supporting evidence.
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Supporting research has been conducted into the errors people make due to experience. Brochet had wine experts to taste and then describe white and red wines. Each participant could describe the wine distinctively and explained them both to be different. In truth both wines were the same but the colours were different. This supports Gregory?s theory of perception as their original knowledge of wine influenced them more than the sensory information. Similarly, Bruner et al showed participants false playing cards for instance, black hearts and red clubs.
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First, information (environmental stimuli) is detected by the sense organs and passed into the sensory memory. This is coded by the five senses and lasts for a fraction of a second, when it then decays, or attention if given to it and it is passed into the short term memory. The short term memory is coded acoustically and holds 5-9 pieces of information for up to 30 seconds. It relies on maintenance rehearsal to keep the information in there, otherwise it decays or is displaced by other things.
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on average, so cannot hold lots of information and a duration (how long it can retain the information for) of no more than half a minute. According to the model, for information to pass to our long term memory, we must rehearse it. Once it is in the long term memory it cannot be lost, except due to damage to the brain, and can be retrieved at any time. The long term memory store is said to have an unlimited capacity and duration.
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