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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology

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  1. Peer reviewed

    Loftus and Palmer APFCC

    5 star(s)

    cause them to distort the way they constructed and stored the information in memory. The study shows that we reconstruct our memory based on schemas already stored. Eye witness testimony is important to the judicial system, as witness accounts can often influence the outcome of a jury. It is well reported that people are often inaccurate at remembering faces, weapons and numerical data such as speed and time. It is therefore evident that there are a number of variables that can affect eye witness testimony, such as the way in which a question is worded after a particular event.

    • Word count: 869
  2. Peer reviewed

    What effect does the order in which a testimony is presented have on persuading a jury?

    4 star(s)

    And because, in this system, the prosecution is heard first and the defence last, it can be assumed that the number of guilty verdicts heard under this system is greater than the number of innocent verdicts because the jury pay more attention to the case when the prosecution is heard. In the study conducted, Pennington used a mock jury with a group of participants who heard the prosecution first and the defence last, and another group who heard the defence first and the prosecution last.

    • Word count: 569
  3. Peer reviewed

    Outline & Evaluate the Cognitive Interview

    4 star(s)

    Fisher and Geiselman found that reporting everything and mental reinstatement check for consistency of the eyewitness report, and changing the order and perspective helps to create a different route to recall, increasing the amount of information. The cognitive interview has strong supporting research; Kohnken et al for example, reviewed research into eyewitness testimony and found that the cognitive interview increased the amount of correct information recalled by 48%, compared to the standard interview.

    • Word count: 461
  4. Peer reviewed

    A study by Loftus and Palmer (1974) into the accuracy of Eye Witness Testimony aimed to find out if changing the wording of a question could distort ones ability to recall from memory an event.

    4 star(s)

    Similarly, when called back a week later and asked if any broken glass was seen, they found that although there wasn't any present, 32% in the 'smashed' condition said they had seen broken glass. Loftus and Palmer therefore concluded that by using the word 'smash' it gives suggestions of strong impact and thus shows that leading questions have an impact on the accuracy of eyewitness' ability to re-call situations. The strengths from this study include providing useful insight for the police so they know that when interviewing witnesses they should be aware of the way they phrase their questions to ensure the memory of the witness isn't distorted in any way.

    • Word count: 864
  5. Free essay

    Trace Decay Theory

    4 star(s)

    Ebbinghaus concluded that over time, the trace faded and the list of syllables was lost. However, there are some criticisms of this experiment, one being that he was the only participant so it is hard to make a generalisation from such a small sample. A further criticism of his experiment was using himself as a participant which could lead to experimenter bias. He knew what his aims and results were, so there was a possibility of demand characteristics. Overall, the criticisms of the trace decay theory are that we cannot physically see the trace so it is impossible to prove,

    • Word count: 904
  6. Peer reviewed

    Outline and evaluate research relating to the linguistic relativity hypothesis

    4 star(s)

    Brown & Lenneberg studied Zuni speakers in New Mexico, whose language had no separate word to describe yellow and orange, and found that they had difficulty in a task that required them to distinguish the two. This appears to support the hypothesis, but there has been research to indicate the contrary. Challenging research comes from Rosch, who studied speakers of Dani (a language of New Guinea). Dani has no words for separate colours, instead only distinguishing brightness, and yet its speakers were successful in tasks that required them to distinguish between a wide array of colours.

    • Word count: 825
  7. Peer reviewed

    The Biological model

    4 star(s)

    It has been found that an excess of the neurotransmitter dopamine has been linked to SZ. Finally infection is a common cause for physical illness; Barr et al found a significant link between mothers who had influenza whilst pregnant and their child developing SZ. As there are physiological causes of abnormality therefore the treatments are physiological these are Drugs, ECT, which involves a small electric shock being sent to the brain causing a small seizure/convulsion and psychosurgery.

    • Word count: 515
  8. Peer reviewed

    'To what extent does psychological research support Atkinson and Shiffrin's model of memory?'

    4 star(s)

    There is some evidence to support this view. In one particular experiment, participants were asked to rehearse a list of items out loud. In general, the more frequently an item was rehearsed the more likely it was to be recalled from LTM (Rundus, 1971). However, evidence from everyday situations implies that rehearsal is a lot less important than the multi-store model suggests. Eysenck & Keane (1995) said that people rarely rehearse information in their everyday lives yet information is constantly entering LTM.

    • Word count: 832
  9. Peer reviewed

    To what extent does research support the view that eyewitness testimony is unreliable?

    3 star(s)

    He also assumed that the schemas influence what happens at the time of retrieval, but have no effect on what happens at the time of comprehension of a story, other evidence suggests that schemas influence comprehension and retrieval. Brewer and Treyens (1981) investigated the effects of schemas on visual memory by asking their 30 participants, one at a time, to wait in a room for 35 seconds. The findings showed that the participants were most likely to recall the typical office items, for example, items with high schema expectancy, but were less successful at recalling the incompatible items such as the brick; however eight participants recalled the really bizarre item, the skull.

    • Word count: 1430
  10. Peer reviewed

    Describe the application of psychodynamic in health and social care

    3 star(s)

    According to www.skepdic.com '[the] unconscious mind has been restricted to potentially harmful memories that might be stored or stirring there, memories of bad experiences that influence our conscious behaviour even though we are unaware of their impact. Because of this, behaviour is different and changed in someone and the unconscious mind is unaware of it which in conclusion makes the person unable to change their behaviour.

    • Word count: 504
  11. Peer reviewed

    Explanation of cognitive approach

    3 star(s)

    It is these repressed memories that can cause underlying/unconscious problems. The id, ego and superego all are prevalent and developed at different stages according to Freud. These stages are called the psychosexual stages and if fixated at a particular stage future adult life can be affected. The first stage is the oral stage and is where the id is produced and developed. This stage is from 0-18 months and is called the oral stage because the ids drive for pleasure and gratification is satisfied and concentrated in the mouth.

    • Word count: 995
  12. Peer reviewed

    Piaget and Vygotsky theory. Compare and contrast two theories of cognitive development and discuss how they impact on the contemporary early years practice.

    3 star(s)

    According to Piaget, babies are born with the ability to adapt and learn from the environment. He believed that a child goes through four stages: sensory motor, preoperational, concrete operational and formal operational. Piaget developed his theory of development stages from observing his own three children and many other young children. Sensory motor stage (0 to 2 years): In this stage the child is dependent upon the adult and is completely egocentric. Child learns through sight, sound, touch, smell and taste to identify objects. During this stage children use trial and error as their main tool of findings.

    • Word count: 1122
  13. Peer reviewed

    Majority Influence

    3 star(s)

    This can be criticised as being ambiguous as it is very difficult to distinguish exactly how far a light has been moved and there was no right or wrong answer. The participants were first tested individually, in which the results varied dramatically, they then heard the estimates of others. When the participants had heard the estimates of others, their estimates converged to that of others, they became more alike and a group norm developed. This demonstrates informational social influence as participants probably felt that other participants had better knowledge than them or were more informed of the situation and were therefore more likely to have estimated the right distance.

    • Word count: 741
  14. Peer reviewed

    "Discuss two theories of forgetting in LTM"

    3 star(s)

    List A: Desk-Boy, List B: Desk-Tree. Then P's are given the first word in the pair and asked to recall the word in List A. The study found that Interference does cause forgetting but only when similar information is paired together, these conditions are rare in everyday life and this means that interference does not really explain most of forgetting in LTM. A criticism of the study is that Interference does not seem to occur with Experts, if you are an expert in a field then learning new information does not cause any interference in the old information this may be because an experts memory is highly organised.

    • Word count: 791
  15. Cognitive Explanations of Addiction.

    Smokers then persist in their behaviour because they have the impression that the drug, cigarettes, are working. Cigarettes have an instant effect on stress as it stops the withdrawal symptoms the individual would have been experiencing. The cigarettes however, in the long term, increase stress levels; this encourages the individual to light up again. This can lead to a vicious cycle as the person smokes to relieve stress and becomes stressed thinking that they have not smoked, urging them to maintain their behaviour. After a period of abstinence if a person smokes they quickly become stressed due to the fact they are smoking and the behaviour is repeated to relieve the stress.

    • Word count: 944
  16. Outline and evaluate the Multi Store Model of memory

    The model also specifies the capacity of the two main stores, STM having the capacity of 7+/-2 and the LTM is limitless. The model also goes on to suggest that the STM lasts for a maximum of 30 seconds whereas the LTM is anything over 30 seconds. Also included in the model is the proposed way in which information is moved from the STM to the LTM - either through maintenance rehearsal or elaborative rehearsal. The model also explains how information can be forgotten; in STM information can become displaced by other units of information as the capacity is 7+/-2, another way information could be lost is through decay.

    • Word count: 818
  17. A Fourteen year old girls Dilemma. This case study is on adolescent psychology which creates hypothetical cases. It discusses about the girls issues and how different age group can provide different solution to the adolescent issues

    Details of Case The case describes of a 14 year old girl Cindy who lives with her divorced mother. Cindy's father is married to another woman and stays in another state. She loves her dad very much but since her dad's marriage the time spent by her with her dad has decreased. Her mother's boyfriend also moved to their house and they have started staying together. Frank who is a professional Photographer has bought new and broader experiences into Cindy's life. He is pressurising Cindy to pose n**e and also willing to pay her well for her photographs.

    • Word count: 580
  18. Eye Witness Testimony. research into this area has found that eyewitness testimony can be affected by many psychological factors

    We have to keep in mind that if our witnesses are older they might have illnesses that can effect their memory. - Anxiety: People who were subjected to the highest levels of anxiety were nearest to the incident so would have been able to see more clearly what happened.

    • Word count: 425
  19. In this assignment the Author intends to discuss, evaluate and research the reliability and validity of diagnosis and classification, demonstrate and recognise the values and limitations required when discussing psychological disorders and finally conclud

    Research Diagnostic Criteria. (Coordination Group Publications 2009; Richard Gross 2010). 'For each disorder, there's a specific list of symptoms, all or some of which must be present, for a specified period of time, in relation to age and gender; stipulation as to what other diagnoses mustn't be present; and the personal and social consequences of the disorder. The aim is to make diagnosis more reliable and valid by laying down rules for the inclusion or exclusion of cases.' (Spitzer et al 1978; Coordination Group Publications 2009; Richard Gross 2010). (Cooper 1994), asks whether the social consequences should be included among the defining features of a disorder itself, as especially within an internationally utilised system such as ICD since the social environment of individuals varies so widely between cultures.

    • Word count: 2800
  20. In this assignment the author intends to present and evaluate theories of cognitive development from both Piaget and Vygotsky; the author will then present the studies that support those theories and finally conclude by critically evaluating those studies

    (Ken R. Wells, 2003; W. Huitt, 1999; Patient Teaching, 1990; J. Bruner, 1986). 'According to Piaget cognitive development involves an ongoing attempt to achieve a balance between assimilation and accommodation that he termed equilibration.' (Ken R. Wells, 2003). Piaget's theory is the principle that cognitive development occurs in a series of four distinct universal stages each characterised by increasingly sophisticated and abstract levels of thought. The first phase, the Sensorimotor stage or infancy is primarily demonstrated through motor activity and reflex actions, thoughts are derived from sensation and movement and any teaching should be confined to using the senses.

    • Word count: 2197
  21. Real Life Application Of Memory Concepts. Three techniques that can help an individual remember a certain stimulus are the usage of mnemonics, being aware of state dependent memory, and the method of loci of a stimulus.

    Mnemonics are a fun way of remembering information that may seem overwhelming at first. One way that I have used this method of retrieval is through the use of an acronym such as remembering that the colors of the rainbow consist of Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, and Violet in that order by remembering ROY G BIV, or That King Philip Cried Over Fat Girl Singing can be applied in Biology by helping me remember the order of classification of species ( Kingdom, Phylum, Cordata, Order, Genius, Species).

    • Word count: 530
  22. Describe and Evaluate the Working Memory Model (WMM)

    Visuo-spatial sketchpad has limited capacity, it also is divided into two components, the visual component which deals with objects and features such as shape and colour and the spatial component which deals with locations and movements in space and it involves tasks such as planning routes. Unlike some other models, the working memory model explains not only the storage, but also the processing of information. It is consistent with records of brain-damaged patients. For example the visuo-spatial sketch pad is said to be made of two parts, the visual component which stores information about colour and form, and the spatial component, which processes spatial and movement information.

    • Word count: 579
  23. Describe and Evaluate the MultiStore Model of Memory

    The STM has a capacity of 7+ /-2 items and duration of 18 seconds and information is encoded acoustically. LTM's capacity is unlimited, it's encoded semantically and the duration can be recalled immediately and you can use different links to retrieve it. The MSM also includes two processes which are attention and rehersal which moves information along to the long term store. Evidence in support of the model includes work by Mudock's serial position curve which showed a primary and recency effect.

    • Word count: 789
  24. Discuss alternative models of memory

    However when a visual and auditory task was carried out performance was much stronger suggesting there are two separate stores for visual and auditory. The first part to the WMM is the central executive which is described as the part which directs attention to tasks and allocates specific systems to particular tasks. For example if an auditory task is being carried out it directs the use of the auditory store. The central executive (CE) has no storage capacity. It is argued that the description for the CE is vague and doesn't really explain anything furthermore would a directing force work within the memory model or outside it?

    • Word count: 1046
  25. Describe and evaluate the multistore model of memory

    This information supports as it suggests, memory decays rapidly and therefore supports the concept of a store which cannot hold large amounts of memory. It was also centered around the use of sight supporting the sensory aspect of the store. However if this store can only hold memories for such a short amount of time should it be considered a store at all? The short term store (STM), according to the model, is our memory for events in the immediate past (such as ordering drinks at a bar)

    • Word count: 1087

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