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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology
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A big aspect of the model was rehearsal; information can?t reach long-term memory unless it?s rehearsed. The more it?s rehearsed, the longer the memory will be as the trace becomes stronger. The model has been criticised as lacking ecological validity because the evidence for the model comes mainly from laboratory based experiments using meaningless verbal data. It?s also criticised as being simplistic; the model assumes that both short and long term memory consist of individual stores made up of one component each, but research into the working memory model has demonstrated that short-term memory possibly consists of different components.
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The capacity of the short term memory (the amount of information that can be held) is 7+/- 2. It has a limited capacity and we can only hold a small amount of information before it is forgotten, although capacity is increased through chunking where the size of the units of information in memory is increased. The evidence for this was Jacobs, who gave participants increasingly longer lists of either letters or numbers, finding capacity for numbers was nine items and for letters was seven items.
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The multi-store model can be explained in terms of 3 stores, sensory, short term and long term stores
If information in the sensory store is attended to then it can be passed to the short term store. In the short term store only 7 plus or minus 2 chunks of information can be stored in the short term store. It is encoded phonetically by its sound and remains there for about 18 seconds without being rehearsed. For information to be transferred form the short term store to the long term store the information needs to be learnt , this is done semantically by have a deeper meaning about the information that has been learnt.
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In order to remember the information, you have to rehearse it (1-1000 times). Information can then be encoded semantically to be stored in long term memory (Baddeley 1966). The stored memory in long term memory can last from 2 minutes up to a lifetime and can be retrieved to short term memory for it to be processed and used. Memories can also be forgotten by decay if it is not used in long term memory and short term memory. Long term memory can also be forgotten by displacement, where old memories are replaced with new.
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The information in the STM is very fragile and will decay very quickly, there for we can then rehearse information we want to remember. This on the multi-store model (MSM) is called the maintenance rehearsal loop. STM only had the capacity of 7+-2, the duration on STM is only 18-30 seconds. Therefore it you do not rehearse the information it will become displaced quickly by other information. The information that is maintained in STM is encoded verbally. Glanzer and Cunitz (1966)
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The last sets of words are likely to be circulating around the STM and so P?s would be likely to recall them than middle words. This supports the idea that there are distinct stores within Memory. CLIVE WEARING He had brain surgery and his STM was impaired. He was no longer able to make new LTM entries. This supports the Multi-Store model as it suggests that in order to create LTM you need to go through the STM; and as Clive Wearing?s STM is impaired this is not possible.
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The first known case of a psychologist testifying in a court of law as an expert witness was in 1896. Albert Von Schrenk-Notzing testified at the trial of a man accused of murdering three women and used his research on memory to explain how the publicity before the case could have altered the recollection of witnesses during the court proceedings. In 1901 German psychologist William Stern carried out memory studies. The participants were asked to look at a picture for 45 seconds and then recall what they saw.
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The capacity has the ability to be unlimitless as well as the duration. But it is our encoding, that allows us to have a deeper process, this is semantics (semantically encoding). Although research has suggested that LTM encoding can occur either visually or acoustically. A strength of the multi-store model is that is produces predictions that can be tested scientifically, it has high validity. For example, one prediction is that the multi-store model shows that the brain has two separate stores associating with short-term and long-term memory. This claim has been supported by research such as Glanzer and Cunitz (1966), who investigated how well we are able to transfer information from each section of the multi-store.
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A psychologist, Loftus (1987) believed anxiety made our memory worse and also reconstructed them. To support this claim, Loftus et al created a lab experiment called the ?weapons effect?. Loftus monitored the gaze of participants and found that, when shown a film of a crime, they tend to focus their gaze on the gun used in the robbery. When questioned later, these participants were less able to identify the robber and recalled fewer details of the crime than other participants who saw a similar film, minus a gun.
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The police interviewed witnesses and thirteen of them were interviewed five months later. Recall was found to be accurate, even after a long period of time. One weakness of this study was that the witnesses who experienced the highest levels of stress where actually present at the event, instead of watching second hand from a film, and this may have helped with the accuracy of their memory recall. Selective attention is when the witness is able to describe one detail, giving them less time to pay attention to other details. It can also be because the witness is more likely to focus on a detail with more emotional significance, such as a weapon.
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However, it can actually take several weeks of drug therapy before schizophrenic symptoms show substantial reduction. But do they really work? COMER (2000) argues that neuroleptics reduces schizophrenic symptoms in the majority of patients and appear to be more effective treatment for schizophrenia than any of the other approaches alone. He also suggests that neuroleptics tend to have their strongest benefit in the first 6 months. However even though COMER suggested that they were the most effective treatment it has been shown that there can be serious problems if patients with schizophrenia stop taking the drugs at any point, even after several years.
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The STM has a very limited capacity (approximately 4 chunks). Information then moves from the STM through maintenance rehearsal to the LTM which has a potentially limitless capacity. Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed a direct relationship between rehearsal in the STM and the strength of the LTM. The MSM supports many observations about memory. There is plenty of evidence for separate STM and LTM stores, such as Glanzer & Cunitz?s serial position effect, and the effects of brain damage (e.g. HM and Clive Wearing)
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It proposed that human memory involves a sequence of three stages and that is Sensory memory, Short-term memory and long-term memory. Each stage of the process, there are constraints in terms of capacity, duration and encoding. Atkinson and Shiffrin proposed that information enters the system from the environment and first registers on the sensory memory store where it stays for a very brief period of time before it passes on to the short-term memory store . The short-term memory store has a very small capacity i.e.
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