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AS and A Level: Cognitive Psychology

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  1. Explain the Relationship Between Stress and Illness

    The test was repeated with pairs of monkeys; one had a lever as before but the other was given no lever, and had no control over the shocks it was administered. After 23 days of the experiment only the monkey in control of the lever died due to a perforated ulcer. Brady concluded that the psychological stress of deciding when to press the lever had caused the monkey's death, rather than the electric shocks. Brady's experiments on the monkeys went some way to showing that there may be a link between stress and illness.

    • Word count: 1671
  2. Can Psychology be a Science?

    His theory suggests that children pass through four distinct age stages of cognitive development, briefly outlined here: 1. The Sensorymotor Stage (0-2), itself split into six sub-stages, is essentially when "the child learns about, and starts to control, its environment through the senses and motor (movement) abilities." (Benson, 1998). 2. The Pre-operational Stage (2-7), also subdivided, is so called because "Piaget believes that the child is not yet capable of logical thought" (Twining, 2001). In this stage, the child learns to speak and eventually understands that people see things differently.

    • Word count: 1745
  3. A counselling Interview

    (See appendice 1) This was to enable me to steer the sessions in search of a particular valued outcome and to remind myself in case of mental blocks, of where I was at during the process. I decided to use this chart to also make myself notes on the session, trying to annotate key points and to observe body language at potentially critical or turning points in the story. My subject was a white male aged 37 living within the locality.

    • Word count: 2024
  4. Primacy and Recency effect

    and the last10 words (positioned 21-30) of a list will have a higher recall than the middle 10 words (positioned 11-20). Which meant that the null hypothesis was rejected which stated: there will be no significant difference in the words recalled wherever the words are positioned in the list where they are the first 10, the last 10 or the middle 10 words. Any difference will be due to chance. In relation to this experiment it was concluded that the positioning of the words in a list has an effect on the recall of those words from the word list as the first few words and the last few words were remembered and recalled more than the middle words.

    • Word count: 4557
  5. Investigating Levels Of Processing Using Images

    The model was created by the assumption that the way in which information is processed may affect the likelihood of it being retrieved at a later time and based on the belief that there are a vast series of varying levels at which information can be processed. Craik & Lockhart had a theory that shallow levels of processing lead in memories that are less likely to be retrieved, whereas deeper levels of processing lead to more resilient retrieval of memories. This approach is based on three levels of processing: 1. Case of the word 2. Sound of the word 3.

    • Word count: 2195
  6. An investigation about retrieval failure in memory (retrieval cues) whether participants can recall more words by free recall or by cued recall

    Introduction Memory plays a vital part in our everyday life. However how do we choose or remember certain things and forget others? To be able answer a question such as, "what was the weather like yesterday?" you must have stored information that happened in the day (retrieval cues) that help you remember what the weather was like. The 3 main stages of the basis of learning and memory are encoding, storage and retrieval. Tulving and Pearlstone investigated this theory, they made participants study 48 words, from 12 different categories e.g. animals, food etc, the words were read out, but participants were told they did not need to remember the categories.

    • Word count: 2559
  7. Free essay

    Levels of Processing Theory

    Some participants were made aware of this experiment and some were not. They found that participants did well on the Phonemic questions and best on the Semantic questions. They also found that intentional learners recalled better than incidental learners. However both learners were found to do best on Semantic questions. These findings suggest that information processed Semantically is more likely to be remembered than information processed Physically or Phonemically. However it can be argued that participants did better on the Semantic questions because they took longer to process than the shallow questions.

    • Word count: 860
  8. To what extent had psychological research shown Eye Witness Testimony to be reliable and accurate?

    But this theory can be criticised by the idea of demand characteristics. There is no way of knowing that the participants weren't subconsciously trying to please the experimenters by giving them the answer they think they wanted to hear. This would greatly affect the internal validity of the results. However, to combat this criticism, Loftus offered money for accuracy in the questions, therefore cancelling out the chance of demand characteristics having an effect. She found that the results were no different and that participants still answered incorrectly. This reassured the idea that EWT can be altered by leading questions and so can be unreliable and inaccurate.

    • Word count: 865
  9. describe and evaluate one ttheory of memory/eyewitness tesimony

    (72) Atkinson and Shiffrin where right to distinguish between short-term and long-term memory. This distinction remains of central importance within memory research and is supported by research on brain damaged patients. The study of KF by Shallice and Warrington (1972) is one such example. KF suffered brain damage after a motorcycle accident and was found to have no problem with long-term memory, but his digit span was damaged to only two items, suggesting that different parts of the brain are organised into short-term and long term. There is also evidence to support the importance of rehearsal.

    • Word count: 1532
  10. Eye Witness Testimony

    For Flashbulb memories to occur the event must be emotionally significant and are often unexpected. People who have flashbulb memories ten to remember information surrounding the event such as; where they were, what they were doing, who told them the news, what they felt about it, how others felt about it and what happened immediately afterwards. 2a. One theory of forgetting in STM is displacement. Forgetting in terms of capacity (7+/- 2: Miller, 1956). Once STM is full, any new information pushes out or 'displaces' old information. Old information is therefore forgotten. 2b. A theory of forgetting in LTM is Interference.

    • Word count: 1001
  11. An investigation to discover the effects of retroactive interference on memory recall.

    The other basis that theories on forgetting can be based on is accessibility theories these suggest that memories are stored in the LTM and that there are obstacles preventing them from accessing the information and retrieving it. Psychologists have suggested and experimented with a several different reasons to why someone cannot retrieve information that has been previously stored in the memory. The most common are decay, interference, retrieval failure and, lack of consolidation. For example such a study was Godden and Baddeley's accessibility theory called the cue dependency theory about forgetting, which stated that the context in which the information is initially learnt is crucial.

    • Word count: 3759
  12. Utilising Learning theories, critically evaluate any 2 biological explanations for criminal behaviour".

    Lombroso's research focused on the physical aspects of criminals, such as the face and body, he believed that the physical shape of the head and face determined the 'born criminal'. He named those who he deemed to be criminal as, The Atavists, and described them as, primitive genetic forms who cannot adapt to modern morality. From his research he stated that the physical aspects that were evidence to express criminal behaviour, were large jaws, high cheekbones, large ears, extra n*****s, toes, or fingers.

    • Word count: 1265
  13. How levels of processing affects memory

    Background Material A pilot study was carried out on two sixth form students at my school. One memorised the categorised words, and the other memorised the random words. They both recalled 8 out of 16 words. As a result of their feedback the amount of time to memorise the list increased to 20 seconds and the amount of time to recall the list increased to 20 seconds, rather than 10 seconds. The theory involved in this experiment is the levels of processing theory.

    • Word count: 2988
  14. How interference affects memory recall

    The average recall of the trigram was 80% after 3 seconds but dropped to 10% after 18 seconds. This is because the counting task interfered with rehearsing the trigram and caused forgetting. Rationale The study that is most similar to the this study is the Peterson and Peterson study it is similar to mine as we are both testing memory recall and how memory recall is affected by retroactive interference. Peterson and Peterson used interference of counting backwards in threes but in this experiment music will be acting as interference after learning the list of words.

    • Word count: 2536
  15. Investigation into acoustic and visual encoding in short-term memory

    Participants were presented with six drawings of familiar objects and asked to memorize them. They had to form a mental image of each one and subtract a specified part of the drawing and name the resulting image. Another group were asked to do the same except they were prevented from articulating during the learning stage. They were asked to repeat a meaningless chant. This prevented them form converting the pictorial image into a verbal code. They were more successful in identifying the subtracted image as they were using visual coding. This study links in with the aims of my investigation as the nature of the task may affect the type of coding used and

    • Word count: 3750
  16. Levels Of Processing

    or whether it belonged to a certain category (semantic processing). They were then given an unrelated activity to do which was meant to filter all the shallow processed words (if their hypothesis was to be correct). After the activity they were asked to try and remember the words from the word list. Their results showed that the words processed semantically (by meaning) were remembered the best (70% of words remembered), followed by the phonetic and structural processing (only 15% of words remembered).

    • Word count: 2043
  17. Psychology Report

    Introduction Memory is the normal function of retaining data. It is a storage system that holds all information we know and learn. Blakemore expresses the fundamental importance of memory, "without the capacity to remember and to learn, it is difficult to learn , it is difficult to imagine what life would be like, whether it could be called living at all." If we didn't have memory all our experiences would be lost and nothing could be learned. The best known explanation of how data enters our memories is Atkinson and Shiffrin's multistore model of memory.

    • Word count: 2947
  18. How Minority views afects Majority - Conformity

    Participants who were readily available were chosen. This was the most convenient sampling method for this investigation. The investigation took place in the college canteen. Students were asked whether they would like to take part in an experiment. They were then given the consent form to read, and then sign it if they wished to take part. Thr participant was then taken to a empty table. They were then showed a jar filled with sweets for a maximum time of 2 minutes. Thereafter, they were requested to speak out their estimate and the estimate was recorded. They were then given a debrief sheet to read, and if they had any questions they were free to do so.

    • Word count: 6522
  19. Psychology. The aim of was to see if lyrical music or instrumental music affects peoples performance on a word search task.

    A non-significant trend for music type was found. The white noise group had the least amount of memory errors, while the Haydn group had the most. More false memories were recalled than failures to recall true memories. Neither type of memory was affected by the type of music played. The white noise group was found to have the least amount of memory errors while the classical, Haydn, music group made the most. One significant effect was that all three groups remembered more false memories than failed to recall true memories.

    • Word count: 1510
  20. investigation to find out whether people remember more word pairs by trying to make images of the word pairs rather than by repeating each word pair three times aloud, to store the information

    First, sensory, input went into the sensory memory; this input would go through to short-term memory. Then, only if this input were rehearsed, it would be encoded into long-term memory. This theory was heavily criticised by many other psychologists for being too simple. Eysenck pointed out that not all factors could be explained by the Atkinson and Shiffrin Model. He said that any theory should be able to explain all known facts. Baddeley believed that short-term memory did not just hold information received from the sensory memory, rather that it was a mental working space in which we can keep information without rehearsal and using long term memory.

    • Word count: 1513
  21. Compare the differences between any two models of memory.

    trying to build a busy city scene in your mind whilst trying to build your dream house), and when trying to do a visual and a phonological task simultaneously you perform just as well as you do whilst doing them separately (e.g. imagining a foreign landscape while singing a song in your mind). This suggests that we have at least two separate short term memory stores. Both of these stores are controlled by the central executive (a bit like an old CPU in a computer, for it cannot do many tasks at once)

    • Word count: 865
  22. An experiment to investigate the effect of interference on memory recall

    If information is not encoded it will fade from the sensory memory. If it has been encoded it will pass into Short-Term memory (STM). STM can only store between 5 and 9 pieces of information (7 is a 'magic' number i.e. +2 or -2). If information stored in short-term memory is rehearsed it will pass into Long-Term Memory (LTM). If not, it will fade from STM, very quickly. Long-Term Memory is where we store information that has been rehearsed or repeated. LTM has unlimited capacity. The Multi-Store model describes memory being stored in processes i.e.

    • Word count: 2891
  23. Outline and evaluate the multi-store model of memory.

    This would explain why rehearsal is needed in order to process and transfer information to the long term memory. There is a lot of evidence to suggest that there are in fact three memory stores. Capacity differs greatly between long term and short term memory. In Jacobs' study into span measures and capacity, he found that when he presented participants with a sequence of numbers and letters, to be recalled immediately after presentation, they could only recall 5-9 items. Therefore, the capacity of short term memory is 5-9 items. We can, however, continue to store things within our memories over the course of our lives, suggesting that the long term memory has an unlimited capacity.

    • Word count: 547
  24. A Level Psychology/ memory and organisation

    & Broadbent) A key study into hierarchy and memory was conducted by Collins and Quillian 1969 which proposed the hierarchical network model. This model was concerned with how words are organised in relation to their semantic meanings.Semantic memory was portrayed as a network of words which are connected to other when there is a semantic similarity. The meaning of a word is said to be given by 'pointers' which basically point from the word out to the meaning. For example, Collins and Quillian suggested that pointers could indicate properties.

    • Word count: 1043
  25. Cognitive Psychology Memory

    Between the short term and long term memory, information is able to be transferred and retrieved. Criticisms state that this is a good explanation for the storage of memories because it has much research into it however it does not take into consideration the different types of long term memories i.e. procedural and episodic. b) Outline one explanation for forgetting in short term memory. The displacement theory is a good explanation for why forgetting occurs in short term memory, this is because Jacobs found that the capacity of short term memory is on average 7 but can hold a maximum of 9 units at any one time.

    • Word count: 939

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