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Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing theory.

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Levels of Processing Theory Depth of Analysis Craik and Lockhart believed that depth is a critical concept for levels of processing theory. * The depth of processing of a stimulus has a substantial effect on its memorability, i.e. how well it is remembered. * Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting and stronger memory traces than do shallow levels of analysis. Craik (1973) defined depth as "the meaningfulness extracted from the stimulus rather than in terms of the number of analyses performed upon it". Rehearsal or repetition is not a form of deep processing because it only involves a repeated "number of analyses", and not and extraction of meaningfulness. Craik and Tulving used semantic processing to represent deep processing and the physical analysis to represent shallower processing. As the theory would predict, participants remembered those words that were deeply processed better than those processed shallowly. The findings of Hyde and Jenkins (1973) also support this theory. Elaboration Craik and Tulving's study also looked at how the elaboration of processing can lead to a greater recall. In a further experiment, the participants were presented on each trial with a word and a sentence containing a blank. They were then asked to decide whether the word fitted into the uncompleted question. Recall was twice as high for words accompanying complex sentences, suggesting that elaboration benefits long term memory. There is a difference between elaboration as in the complexity of the sentence, and the time spent on the task, as in the phonemic processing. Depth of processing involves elaboration. Organization Organization is another form of deep processing. ...read more.


This is important because it could be, for example that different kinds of memory have greater duration or are affected by forgetting in different ways. If there is more than one long-term store, we need to work out the number and nature of long-term stores that we possess. Episodic and semantic memory Tulving (1972) argued that there were two different types of long term memory: episodic memory and semantic memory. Episodic memory has an autobiographical flavour. It contains the memories of specific events or episodes occurring in a particular place or at a particular time. Memories of what you did yesterday or had for lunch last weekend are examples of episodic memory. Semantic memory contains information about our knowledge of the rules and the word of our language, about how to calculate percentages and how to fill your car with petrol etc. Tulving backed up his theory to support the distinction between episodic and semantic memory by injecting a small amount of gold into volunteers, including himself. They thought about personal events or about information in semantic memory. Blood flows in different areas of the brain were recorded. Increased blood flow indicated that a certain part of the brain was active. When participants were using their episodic memory, parts of the frontal cortex were active, where as semantic memory was associated with high levels of blood flow in the posterior or back regions of the cortex. This fits the view that there are at least partially separate episodic and semantic memory systems. Explicit and Implicit memory When people are asked to recall specific pieces of information, it is known as using their explicit memory, which is "revealed when performance on a task requires conscious recollection of previous experiences". ...read more.


According to the encoding specificity principal, retrieval (or its opposite forgetting) occurs fairly rapidly and with little thinking involved. However retrieval often involves problem solving activities which take time and conscious thought. Why according to Freud how may memories be represented and assigned to the unconscious? Memories may be represented and assigned to the unconscious thought the emotional factor; repression. The concept of repression can be used to explain forgetting. For example, someone who doesn't like going to the dentist. If they told you that they 'forgot' their appointment, you might think that this is a repressed memory - the anxiety caused by the memory in some way made it inaccessible to conscious thought. What is flashbulb memory and why might it occur? Flash bulb memory is the long lasting and vivid memories of highly important and dramatic events. Flash bulb memory is as if a flash photograph was taken at the very moment of the event and every detail indelibly printed in memory. The emotional nature of such events contributes to the way in which they are stored in memory. Brown and Kulik suggested that flashbulb memories were distinctive because they are both enduring and accurate. The concept of flashbulb memories seems to contradict the notion that through processing in short term store is needed for good long term memory, and to support the idea that distinctiveness and emotional factors are important in memory. Brown and Kulik suggested that a special neural mechanism might have been responsible for flash bulb memories. Other psychologists have suggested that flashbulb memories are so memorable because they are repeated so often, on occasions when people recall these emotionally significant lifetime events. ...read more.

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This is a very detailed piece of work which shows the writer fully understands the subject matter. The experiments are explained well and most of the relevant ones on this subject have been included. If the essay was better organised this piece of work would probably get full marks.

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Marked by teacher Linda Penn 07/08/2013

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