• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Critically Discuss the Causes of one Psychological Disorder Depression is one of the most common and treatable of all mental illnesses

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Student: Zoe Wood Tutor: Nick Warmsley Theories of Depression ONCW - Psychology - Level 3 Assignment 2 Date of Submission: 15th March 2006 Critically Discuss the Causes of one Psychological Disorder Depression is one of the most common and treatable of all mental illnesses. The term 'depression' can be confusing and often referred to describe normal emotional reactions; however it is a widely studied psychological disorder that many people can suffer from. 340 million people in the world suffer from this mental disorder, which no one is immune to. It can happen to anybody from any social class, from any country, of any race. Everybody can feel 'down in the dumps' at times. These feelings of sadness and discouragement are perfectly normal especially during hard times, but a person who constantly feels like this and cannot 'snap out of it' may be a sufferer of this illness. Depression can take several other forms. In bipolar disorder, known as manic-depressive illness, a person's mood swings back and fourth between depression and mania. People with seasonal effective disorder, suffer from depression normally during the autumn and winter when there are fewer hours of daylight. ...read more.

Middle

Hendler & Prescott (1999) conducted the same study using 3790 twin pairs and found a heritability factor of 39% with the remaining 61% down to environmental factors. Unlike Bierut et al he found no difference between males and females. It should be noted, however, that there have been criticisms of the underlying assumptions of twin studies. One of the most common criticisms is what effects the environment has on the study. Twins usually share the same environment as they develop through time, but the factor is dismissed as a component. Reiss and Neiderhiser (2000) suggested that "it needs to be subjected to continuing criticisms as we learn more about the nuances of sibling relationship and how they evolve overtime. It may well be that subtle differences in the social worlds of identical twins in comparison to fraternal twins are still masquerading as genetic influence" They do not suggest ignoring the studies altogether but suggest integration with observations about the social environment in developmental theories. Some psychologists thought that research from twin studies were limited due to the fact stated that they usually shared the same environments. ...read more.

Conclusion

Parker et al (1998) devised a 'lock and key' hypothesis to establish the way depression is triggered off. Early adverse experiences, such as parents dying and being taken into care, which is the lock, is triggered off by later experiences, such as loss of your job, which is the key. They interviewed 270 severely disturbed patients and found that the 'lock and key' hypothesis in one third of the cases. This, again like the other theories, show that there are only a small number of people, from the sample used that have the 'lock and key' hypothesis, meaning the hypothesis is not a strong factor that causes depression. It is clear form all the studies undertaken that there is no black and white answer to reveal how and why people suffer from depression. In reviewing a multitude of twins, adoption and family studies, it is clear to see that the foundation for each human is diverse in structure. For some cases genetics seems dominant, in some environment explains all, and in others it is the two factors combined together making people who and what they are. This is a strong indicator that the causes of depression will never be put down to one factor and the reason will have to be rationalised on a case by case basis. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physiological Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physiological Psychology essays

  1. Nursing care as applied to a client with a mental health problem

    I would ask the client how he was feeling. I would comment you don't look very comfortable at the moment, how do you feel? Through asking this it would help the client acknowledge his anxiety. Once he acknowledged his symptoms he could begin to learn to control them.

  2. Discuss two or more psychological explanations of one eating disorder.

    -The joint concern for the child will bring the parents back together. Commentary Support for Bruch - Steiner says that parents of teens with AN tend to define their child's physical needs rather than the child. - Research also claims that those with AN rely on others opinions and views, and have a lack of control.

  1. Anxiety Disorders

    * Superstitions; excessive attention to something considered lucky or unlucky Common compulsive behaviors in OCD include: * Excessive double-checking of things, such as locks, appliances, and switches. * Repeatedly checking in on loved ones to make sure they're safe. * Counting, tapping, repeating certain words, or doing other senseless things to reduce anxiety.

  2. Psychological influences in childbearing and midwifery practice - A Rite of Passage: Transition from ...

    if it is offered by an observer who has identified a health need. The second stage of Genneps 'rite of passage' is transition or liminal period, which means 'on the threshold', this is when the woman loses her old status, and before she has taken on her new status.

  1. What are the characteristics of the bipolar disorders? As a clinician, what symptoms would ...

    Once the person's mood begins to cycle, there is often not an external reason the person can find for feeling the way that he/she does. As a clinician, I would look for the following symptoms of mania (or a manic episode), which include: * Increased energy, activity, and restlessness *

  2. Teenagers in Depression.

    Society all too often views teenagers for what they can be instead of for who they are. Their identity is fragile and is threatened by fears of rejection, feelings of failure, and of being different. These young people face stress in school as well as a lack of resources in a cash-stricken education system.

  1. Depression - Gender Differences.

    and could vary: inside and outside the home; and within and beyond familiar, local territory. Women are found to be more likely to express personal fear and men are more likely to reproduce the public discourse, especially older men (Jefferson, 1996).

  2. Free essay

    Schizophrenia is a mental disorder which usually starts between the ages of 15 ...

    These included shaking, trembling, muscle twitches and muscle spasms. Many antipsychotic drugs have a similar chemical structure but vary slightly producing the different side effects. Fig. 3 shows two chemical structures of antipsychotic drugs, Promazine and Chlorpromazine. [6] Conventional drugs are broken down into low potency and high potency classifications, Fluphenazine and haloperidol are examples of high-potency typical antipsychotics, and chlorpromazine is an example of a low potency antipsychotic.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work