• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Describe and evaluate models of memory.

Extracts from this document...


Claire Harvey DISCRIBE AND EVALUATE MODELS OF MEMORY What is memory? Memory is involved in all aspects of our lives, is it a cognitive thinking process or a way of retaining information or is it a number of connected stores or even actual information retained. According to Reber (1985), it is possibly all of theses. Memory has not been defined as a single process or fact and several theories exist about its nature, character and structure. We have vast amounts of information stored in our memory systems which we are able to access quickly and effortlessly, this implies that knowledge stored must be highly organised to allow us to retrieve the appropriate information for a given situation. This organising will be determined by the way that information is encoded into memory. The way the knowledge is organised will determine the type of process required to access that information in the future. Atkinson and Shiffrin (1969) suggested that memory comprised of three separate stores. The sensory memory store, the short-term memory and the long term-memory each store has a specific and relatively inflexible function. This was called the multi-store model. There are two main memory stores short term memory (STM) ...read more.


Long-term memory is studied in the same way as short-term memory.Encoding, capacity and duration. Two types of encoding are thought to operate in long-term, declarative memory and procedural memory. Declarative memories evolves semantic memory, this is memory for meaning, and episodic memory, this concerns knowing when, where and what. It is linked to personal experiences. Procedural memory, is memories of how to do things, this is often automatic and is resistant to forgetting. Baddeley(1966)researched semantic encoding by presenting participants with four list to remember, list 1 contained similar sounding words and list 2 had now words of the same sounds, list 4 contained words with similar meaning and list 3 had no relevance to each other. They were then asked to recall as many words as possible immediately after and then again after 20 minutes.Baddeley found that immediate recall was better for list 2 than for list 1 and there was little difference between list 3 and 4. After 20 minutes he found they recalled list 4 better than list 3 and there was no difference between list 1 and list 2.This experiment showed that long-term memory tends to store information accounting to semantics rather then simply sound.Baddeley also used a laboratory experiment and can therefore be criticised in terms of ecological validity, although it has good reliability. ...read more.


It showed that encoding was not at all simple. This helped to widen the focus on seeing the ltm as just a simple storage unit to seeing it as a complex processing system. Craik and Lockhart's ideas led to lots of experiments, most of which confirmed the ideas of the deep semantic processing systems and led to lots of supporting evidence. Research today agrees that STM is made up of a number of subsystems; the working memory model explains a lot more than the multi-store. In conclusion all the research that has been carried out does not prove precisely how memory works.Reber (1985) according to the experiments shown is right. Memory is all three of these, a cognitive thinking process, a way of retaining information and actual information retained. Psychologists have put a lot of time into figuring out the mysteries of memory. It is a very complex subject and I am sure they will be researching it for years to come. Each individual person uses memory in a different way. Think of memory as a computer, the short-term memory is the ram and the long-term memory as the hard drive. As I have already said the brains ability is more powerful than the world's largest computer, more than anyone can imagine, I don't think we will ever really know all of its capabilities. 1 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Define short-term memory and describe the main factors that influence the number of items ...

    4 star(s)

    Glazner and Cunitz (1966 [3]) stated that counting backwards for as little as ten seconds between the presentation of a list and the beginning of the recall task mainly affects the recency effect. Eysenck and Keane insist that this happens because of the two or three words that are susceptible

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and Evaluate 2 Models Of Memory

    4 star(s)

    In reality, simple rehearsal is not enough. People are more likely to pay attention to a stimulus if it has an interesting feature. Also individuals are more likely to pay attention if the stimulus activates a known pattern. This is supported by the evidence of Bekerian and Baddaley, who looked


    Each participant has 1 pen and a scoring sheet (See appendix 5). This was handed out at the beginning of the investigation. As group 2 were tested after group1, they would reuse the pens. Bowls was also required because names of people in each s*x were drawn out of each bowl.

  2. effects of chunking and unchunking on short term memory

    There is one anomaly, participant 13, scored highly in the un-chunked condition, scoring 9, whilst only scoring 6 in the chunked condition. This may have been for a number of reasons. If the participant was bored, the concentration levels may have dropped and no effort was put in; or, the

  1. The effect of chunking on memory recall in STM.

    I then briefed the participant on what they would have to do in the experiment. Participants where assured of confidentiality, see briefing in appendix. I then began the test by first playing the 5 un-chunked numbers one after the other with gaps in between each mobile number so the participants could say their answers.

  2. "An experiment to see the effect of chunking on short-term memory recall".

    Extraneous Controls The room temperature was controlled so that it is not uncomfortable for the participants, so that it would affect the results. Participant Variables Controlling these factors, which could affect the outcomes of the experiment, is not easy, if at all possible.

  1. Cue dependent Forgetting. This experiment investigates Tulvings theory of cue dependent forgetting, with ...

    one condition by having two different groups of participants to perform task in two different sets of location non-related to classroom without prior notice. The challenge would be that the study will have to be carried out without informed consent, instead of obtaining presumptive consent followed by debrief at the end.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    It was also found that the information was recalled if it had personal importance or specific meaning to the participant. The study also lacks mundane realism as people rarely learn lists of words therefore it is unable to be generalised to real life situation.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work