Effects of Rehearsal and Imagery on STM Recall
Rehearsal acts as a buffer between memory and Long Term Memory, by maintaining information within the Short Term Memory. The effects of repeated presentation depend on whether the repeated stimulus is merely processed to the same level, or encoded differently on its further presentations.
The Serial Position Effect is the likelihood of remembering any word, depending on its position in the list. Better recall of the words early in the list results from Primacy Effect. They get rehearsed and stored in the Long Term Memory. Therefore, this proves that rehearsal increases the chance of remembering. Words towards the end of the list are still in the Short Term Memory so are also easily recalled.
Imagery is different to verbal memory and is defined as the creation of a mental picture. It helps with the organization of the memory, and the more bizarre the image, the more likely we are to remember it. Paivio (1971) agreed, proposing that the processing of words and images occurs separately. Concrete words are encoded twice, once as verbal symbols and again as image-based symbols. Therefore, this increases the likelihood that they will be remembered. This is similar to the processing involved with the Working Memory Model, where oral memory is stored in the Primary Acoustic Store, whereas images are collected in the Visuo-Spatial Scratch Pad. Paivio called this Dual Coding Hypothesis.