• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Outline one explanation of forgetting in long-term memory (LTM) and give one criticism of this explanation.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Cognitive Psychology 1a) Outline one explanation of forgetting in long-term memory (LTM) and give one criticism of this explanation. (3 marks + 3 marks) There are two reason as to why forgetting in long-term memory may occur, these are: the interference theory and the retrieval failure theory. The interference theory works in two parts, these are proactive (this is where earlier memories disrupt later ones) and retroactive (this is later memories disrupt earlier memories). One criticism of the interference theory is that most of the research into the interference theory has come from laboratory experiments and therefore lack external validity. 1b) Describe the procedures of one study by Loftus of eyewitness testimony and give one criticism of this study. (3 marks + 3 marks) One study on eyewitness testimony was based on the effects of language on recall, this was studies by Loftus and Palmer (1974). ...read more.

Middle

One study into encoding was that of Conrad (1964). Conrad studied acoustic encoding. In this experiment participants were shown a combination of 6 letter at a time for around a second, they then had to write these down. There was a number of simple errors with this, B and P were often mistaken for each other, as was V and P. this study showed that visual representations are somehow transformed into an acoustic code. The finding of this research is also supported by that of Baddeley (1986). Baddeley used words instead of letters and found that it was easier to remember word which where acoustically similar. The findings of Conrad is not supported by that of Posner (1969). Posner studied visual code being present in STM, rather than just acoustic codes. Looking at all of the above studies it does seem that acoustic encoding is the preferred way of representation. ...read more.

Conclusion

Short-term memory can also be influenced by other variables, such as stress, mood ect. Duration is the length of time the memory store can hold the information. One study into the duration of short-term memory is that of Peterson & Peterson (1959). Peterson & Peterson presented their participant with a number of trigrams, three lettered, unrelated consonants, they were then told to count backwards in three, to attempt them to forget these trigrams, their findings showed that information quickly disappears from the short-term memory. So the duration of short term memory from this study is said to be 3 - 18 seconds. The advantages of this study was that it developed a future technique known as the Brown-Peterson technique. We are also able to establish cause and effect between the IV &DV. Some disadvantages of this study are that it lacks external validity and the potential effects of other variables were not taken into consideration. ?? ?? ?? ?? Psychology - LH Shane Lightfoot ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. SHORT TERM MEMORY

    This means that it stores information on how things sound. It also supports the theory that long term memory uses a semantic code which means information is stored due to its meaning. One other strength of the Baddeley study is that it also leads to other investigations being carried out to support this theory or ones that gives criticisms.

  2. Cue dependent Forgetting. This experiment investigates Tulvings theory of cue dependent forgetting, with ...

    even they remember the singular form), some words can be easily chunked due to their syllables and synonyms (aiding recall) Evaluation: Problems with generalising raised from using psychology students as subjects because they were predisposed with expectations and anticipations therefore are more able in recalling activity.

  1. Investigating the short-term memory

    which included the idea that in order to recall information in the short term memory the information has to be first given attention in order to be passed on to short term. The recall result therefore depends on the amount of time rehearsed.

  2. Discuss one Biological and one Psychological Explanation of Aggression

    huge doses of testosterone, later on in life. If the castration occurs 10 days after birth, the difference in aggression levels is much less obvious. This is supposed to be because of the androgen stimulation in the neural circuits during the early days after birth (Motelica-Heino et al 1993).

  1. Memory's Impact

    of only sixth form students who were asked to participate in the experiment. This causes a biased sample and does not consider the whole population. The modification to this could be to have a different sampling technique such as random sampling; this would allow every member to have an equal chance of being selected.

  2. Report on Psychological Research into Eyewitness Testimony

    Having seen all the slides, every participant was given twenty questions. Each of the two groups was divided again to create four groups- (i.e. 1A, 1B, 2A, 2B). Within these twenty questions there was one critical question- the first half of the groups (1A, 2A)

  1. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    Ask, "Do you have any questions?" and Say "Remember, if you feel distressed or you want to leave, you have the right to do so. Just raise your hand and inform me to discontinue the experiment." f) Hand them Word List 1 and instruct the participants to learn the 10 adjectives perfectly.

  2. Outline and evaluate 2 explanations of forgetting in Long-term memory.

    Explanation of forgetting from long term memory for interference was investigated by Baddeley, Hitch. McGeoch and McDonald. Braddeley and Hitch found problems in separating out the effects of interference and decay. They did an investigation with the help of rugby players and they were asked to recall the teams they played in the previous season.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work