• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Psychology Memory Revision Guide

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Transfer-Encoding: chunked ´╗┐Multi store Model Akinson and Shiffrin model * Simplistic * Rehearsal isn?t the only way * STM and LTM are not single stores * Useful ? base for further research http://revisewithrachie.com/wp-content/uploads/2010/12/multi-store-model.png Sperling ? Capacity of STM * Rows of letters ? recall 4 or 5 * Distinguish between 3 tones * Showed letters again with the tone * Recall less with the tones * Reliable * Lacks ecological validity * Generalising Iconic, echonic, haptic stores Peterson and Peterson - Duration of STM * Showed a consonant trigram * Count backwards in threes ? don?t rehearse the trigram * Recall 80% with 3 second intervals * Got worse as intervals lengthened * Information decays rapidly when rehearsal is prevented * Reliable ? lab * Lacks Ecological validity * Get confused with other trigrams Bahrick et al ? duration of LTM * Graduates of an American high school * Memory tests- recognising class mates, pictures, matching names to pictures * Good at 34 years * Dip at 47 years Conrad ? encoding of STM * Showed random sequence if six consonants * 1 ? acoustically similar * 2- acoustically ...read more.

Middle

easily to remember Baddeley and hitch * Dual tasks * 1- reasoning task * 2- reading aloud * Could do both easily simultaneously * STM must have different components that can process more than one type of information Baddeley et al * Dual task * Tracking task and visual imagery task * Poor at the dual task performed alone * Both tasks needed to be done in visual-spatial sketchpad so were competing for the same limited resources Eyewitness testimony Misleading information ? Loftus * Film of events leading to a car crash * Control group * experimental group (misleading question) * Asked questions to what they had seen * 17% experimental group recalled a barn * Misleading information absorbed into their memory and they believed it * Reliable ? lab * Ecological validity * Demand characteristics Anxiety ? Christianson and hubinette * Surveyed 110 people witness or victims of bank robberies * Victims subjected to higher levels on anxiety recalled better * High ecological validity * Generalising * Ethics ? distress Age ? Yarmey * Showed young and old adults a film of a staged event then asked questions * ...read more.

Conclusion

Memory improvement techniques Mnemonics ? system such as a pattern of letters, ideas or associations to help remember Something * Method of loci ? associating words with places * Method of peg word system ? associating words that are similar in sounding Encoding and retrieval ? recall better if the retrieval context is like the encoding context Geiseman and Glenny ? * List of words * Imagine and female or male voice * Recall a list of new words and some old * More successful if the voice presenting was the one they imagined * Recalling in the same place or same environment can help Chunking ? gathering all information together Katona * List of numbers * Hard to recall * Put comas in them * Easy to recall and see they were square numbers Active processing ? Craik and lockhart * Group 1 ? structural questions * Group 2 ? carry out acoustic task * Group 3 ? semantic task * Group 4 ? no task * Group 3 performed as well as group 4 and better than 1 and 2 * Meaningful engagement can lead to better recall ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    To retain recall, which is more beneficial, rote rehearsal or imagery?

    4 star(s)

    This is where both the control group, and the experimental group receive their instructions in the same way. Participants The subjects taking part within this experiment are people within the residential area of Helston town (Cornwall); they are also representing a small equivalent of the population by taking part in this study.

  2. Recall in Memory Using Mnemonics

    Their score was recorded in a raw data sheet hidden from view. All participants were told that their scores were within the norms so as not to harm their confidence. Following the experiment, participants were fully informed to the true nature of the experiment and debriefed both individually and as a group and all questions were answered.

  1. Memory: Rote Rehearsal and Mental Imagery.

    There is a significant difference and the alternative hypothesis can be accepted, and the null hypothesis can be rejected. These results support the background theory that mental imagery helps in the encoding, storage and retrieval of information. This also backs up Bower's experiment in which the 'mental imagery' group also

  2. Memory Revision

    span increasing with age may be due to increasing brain capacity or improved memory techniques, such as chunking EVALUATION: * + The study has great historical importance because it represents the first systematic attempt to assess the capacity of STM * - The research lacks mundane realism as the digit-span

  1. Cognition & development How a human/child develops knowledge/understanding of everything.

    * A problem with the study demonstrated that peers have a positive effect on less able and less knowledgeable children than themselves. Bruner's theory of cognitive development Bruner agreed with Vygotsky regarding peer tutoring and he performed on investigation on mothers and babies and how they communicate.

  2. Report on Psychological Research into Eyewitness Testimony

    These findings allowed Loftus to conclude that the misleading question was the cause of correct information being replaced in the memory by false information. It was also claimed that over time the effect of misleading questions becomes more pronounced. This research is supported by other studies, and so the evidence provided is considered to be reliable.

  1. A counselling Interview

    I assured their complete confidentiality, explaining that all identifying references to themselves or their significant others would be changed or omitted. I explained the use of an alias and my subject became Lee, a 37 year old male from the West Midlands area.

  2. Investigation into acoustic and visual encoding in short-term memory

    In conclusion, Baddeley stated that long-term memory makes use of semantic rather than acoustic coding. One other study that looked into the notion of acoustic confusion was carried out by Conrad (1964). The aim of the investigation was to find out whether people would use acoustic coding in STM even when information is presented visually to them.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work