Psychology Memory Revision Guide

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Multi store  Model

Akinson and Shiffrin model 

  • Simplistic
  • Rehearsal isn’t the only way
  • STM and LTM are not single stores
  • Useful – base for further research

Sperling – Capacity of STM

  • Rows of letters – recall 4 or 5
  • Distinguish between 3 tones
  • Showed letters again with the tone
  • Recall less with the tones
  • Reliable
  • Lacks ecological validity
  • Generalising

Iconic, echonic, haptic stores

Peterson and Peterson - Duration of STM

  • Showed a consonant trigram
  • Count backwards in threes – don’t rehearse the trigram
  • Recall 80% with 3 second intervals
  • Got worse as intervals lengthened
  • Information decays rapidly when rehearsal is prevented
  • Reliable – lab
  • Lacks Ecological validity
  • Get confused with other trigrams

Bahrick et al – duration of LTM

  • Graduates of an American high school
  • Memory tests- recognising class mates, pictures, matching names to pictures
  • Good at 34 years
  • Dip at 47 years

Conrad – encoding of STM

  • Showed random sequence if six consonants
  • 1 – acoustically similar
  • 2- acoustically dissimilar
  • Write them in serial order
  •   Made errors on recall
  • Convert visually present material to an acoustic code in STM and then find it hard to recognise  between words that sound the same
  • Reliable – lab
  • Lacks ecological validity
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Baddeley – LTM Encoding

  • List of short familiar words
  • Acoustically similar and dissimilar
  • Semantically similar and dissimilar
  • Write them down
  • Words that sounded similar were harder to recall
  • STM codes acoustically
  • Reliable – lab
  • Lacks ecological validity

Working memory model

Baddeley and Hitch 

  • Explains in more detail
  • Shows individual differences – people differ
  • Lots of supported research
  • Doesn’t account all sensory modalities
  • Doesn’t go into detail about central executive

Baddely et al 

  • Brief visual presentations of lists of words either short or ...

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