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SA - Milgram - 1963

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SOCIAL APPROACH Milgram - 1963 Aim of study: * To investigate what level of obedience participants would show when an authority figure told them to administer electric shocks to another person. Participants: Obtained from advertisements + direct mailing. Self selected or volunteer sample. * 40 males: 20-50 yrs old from New Haven area in the United Stated of America. * Job ranges Included: postal clerks, HS teachers, salesmen, labourers, engineers, etc. * Education: one had not finished HS to some who a have degree + qualification in various subjects. * Paid: $4.50 regardless of what happened after and before they arrived. This is called COERCIAN. Method and Design: * Method: Lab experiment. * Observer observed participants for signs of tension/nervousness: "sweat, tremble, biting of lips, nervous laughter" I.V./D.V. * I.V. - There was NO I.V. * D.V. - Level of obedience; how far they'd go with the voltage to shock the learner. ...read more.


Example: "please continue", "this experiment requires that you continue". Controls: * Standardised deception. * Cover story. * Slips of paper drawn (pre-determined teacher). * Learner strapped. * Standardised prods used by experimenter. Results: (overall %) * 65% of ppts continued to shock until 450 volts. * Only 35% stopped before. * 22.5% stopped at 300 volts. * Many showed signed of nervousness and extreme tension. * 14 displayed nervous laughter; 3 had uncontrollable seizures. Conclusion: * Very high rate of obedience - 65%. Milgram explained this as being so high because it's a strong part of human society. * Milgram said: "Many situational factors which lead to high rate of obedience. E.g. - Environment of lab = formal. Yale Uni = prestigious. - Verbal prods from experimenter. - Distance of the learner. - Proximity of the experimenter. (AGENTIC STATE: Individuals give up their own responsibility, deferring to those of higher status.) ...read more.


- High - Real-like conditions of n**i Germany WW2. * Reliability - * Sample - 40 males: 20-50 yrs old from New Haven area (USA). Range of education backgrounds. * - Ad. - Range of age/ education/ socio-economic status. - Dis. - All from same area. (New Haven, USA) - All male + white. - Hard to generalise to other cultures/ places. * Ethics - Dis. - Coercion - Paying. - Psychological harm - May leave ppt shocked that they damaged someone so badly. - Offer counselling. - Deception - Debrief. * Type of Data - Quantitative - 65% - 450 volts + 35% reluctant. Ad. - Easier to analyse. Dis. - Loss of rich data. - Qualitative - Observations + Interviews + Photograph + Filming Ad. - Rich data. Dis. - Harder to analyse. * Personality/Situation - Mainly situation - Prestigious uni, formal setting. - Resist authority (Personality) - Job, religious beliefs. * Applications - Useful in training - people services - police/ambulance. * One Change - Sample - More nationalities. - Contemporary data. ?? ?? ?? ?? ...read more.

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3* Starts off with reasonable description in a research report format. Later brief notes towards the end are too brief to add much to the essay. Reasonable level of understanding and some evaluation.

Marked by teacher Stephanie Duckworth 10/09/2013

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