• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Memory Process. This paper will describe a memory test using numbers, letters, and words and analyze results of the test, as well as explain the concepts of working memory, short term memory, and long term memory.

Extracts from this document...


The Memory Process Encoding data into the mind is the general process of memory. In other words, memory is the capability to program, accumulate and remember things. The three central methods of memory are to encode, store, and recall. Three kinds of encoding are used to process information for storage. The first is to hear the information, which is called acoustic. The second is imagery or what is seen and the third is information that is meaningful known as semantic. Memory is ultimately held in storage until such time the information is needed and then it is recalled. This paper will describe a memory test using numbers, letters, and words and analyze results of the test, as well as explain the concepts of working memory, short term memory, and long term memory. It will also offer an explanation of encoding and retrieval in the memory process and how they relate to this memory test and the results. Lastly, this paper will evaluate variables connected to encoding information and ease of retrieval as they relate to this test and the results. ...read more.


Long term memory is concerned with the information that lies outside of the conscious mind that may be recalled by the working memory when needed. Although some of the information is easily recalled, while other information is more difficult to recover. Selected Memory Test I found a memory test that used random numbers, random letters, and words to test memory. The website stated that "the average person's short-term memory can hold about 7 pieces of information" (Braingle, 1999-2012). The purpose of this test is to determine my short term memory limit. The website gives information on how to use different techniques to train your brain to better remember more information in the short term memory. One such technique is known as chunking. With this technique you take smaller objects and group them into larger objects so they can be more easily remembered (Braingle, 1999-2012). The test itself began by clicking a button to reveal three numbers or letters, depending on which test you are taking. I chose to do the letters test. ...read more.


I pictured them in my mind as such: XDO-KLJ-NWQ-N-F. I did the last one like that because I remembered it as "enough" or N-F. After taking the letters test, I began thinking of how well chunking works with numbers. We use this with social security numbers as well as telephone numbers and even birthdays. If a familiar number like a birthday is seen as an address, it will be easier to remember the address because those particular numbers are common even though the place may not be. Conclusion In sum, short term and long term memory are thought to have a different set of characteristics, which are unique. Short term memory is as simple as its name, short. It only lasts for up to 30 seconds without rehearsal. With rehearsal, these items have a greater possibility of being transferred to long term memory, which last much longer. Short term memory has a restricted capacity, while long term memory is likely to be nearly immeasurable in volume. On average, people have the capacity to store 7 pieces of information in their short term memory and in their long term memory it is possible to store several groups of information. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a teacher thought of this essay

3 star(s)


The writer has completed a basic essay on memory showing that they have an understanding of short term, working and long term memory. However, too few references have been used and therefore some of the main studies associated with these subjects have not been mentioned. More needs to be written on long term memory and recall too. If further studies are included and more is written on the subject of long term memory then the score would be higher.

Rating 3 *

Marked by teacher Linda Penn 07/08/2013

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    In this essay I am going to contrast and compare three approaches in psychology ...

    4 star(s)

    The aim of this therapy 'is to help clients clarify their thoughts on problems to gain greater insight into them. This greater understanding helps clients to recognize their own strengths and limitations, and very often accompanied by an increase of self-esteem.'

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Define short-term memory and describe the main factors that influence the number of items ...

    4 star(s)

    Influenced by Hamilton, Jacobs conducted the first systematic experiment on this idea (1887 [1]). He devised a technique known as 'digit span' that has been significantly used ever since. The study he developed involves presenting subjects with a sequence of digits, they are asked to repeat the digits back in the same order they appeared.

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Describe and Evaluate 2 Models Of Memory

    4 star(s)

    The Model has got its own strenghts and weaknesses. First of all, it is supported by a lot of evidence. For example Murdock in 1963 found that if subjects are presented with 20 or more words individually and then asked to recall them immediately in any order, then the words near the beginning and end of the list are more likely to be remembered.

  2. Experiment to Test Memory Using Recognition and Free Recall.

    If the depth of analysis at the time of learning is the most crucial factor to memory, free recall and recognition conditions should not produce significantly different results. Recognition of patterns such as letters or an arrangement of letters is a process of identifying an arrangement of parts as a known item.

  1. An experiment to investigate the effect of interference on memory recall

    Very few recalled words which were called out in the middle. With interference, the results were quite similar. This would support the studies carried out by Underwood & Postman (1960) and is an excellent example of the Primacy and Recency effect.

  2. Stroop Test Experiment

    EEG and fMRI studies of the Stroop effect have revealed selective activation of the anterior cingulate cortex during a stroop task, a prefrontal structure in the brain which is hypothesized to be responsible for conflict monitoring. HYPOTHESES AIM: The aim of this experiment is to test the stroop effect by

  1. Investigate the effects of Imagery on Memory recall: Visual Aid & Memory Recall

    In general STM appears to rely on acoustic code for storing information but some research has shown the visual codes are also used in STM. Brandimote et al., 1992 found participants used visual encoding in STM if they were given a visual task and prevented from verbal rehearsal in the retention interval before performing a visual recall task.

  2. A study investigating the effects of categorisation on recall

    Noise was kept to a minimum during the experiment with televisions or radios turned off. When other people were present this was limited to the participants partner or children. Experimenter effects were reduced by minimising interaction before and during the experiment.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work