• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The MSM model of memory

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

´╗┐Callum Dunlop 12P3 The MSM model of memory The MSM consists of three unitary stores, the sensory memory (SM), the short-term memory (STM), and the long-term memory (LTM) and is the theoretical explanation of how memory processes work, proposed by Atkinson and Shiffrin in 1968. Information is said to pass through the three stages I spoke of earlier in a fixed sequence. At each stage it is suggested that there are capacity and duration limitations and information can be lost from any of the stages. The MSM proposes that the first stage is sensory memory (SM). The name is derived from the fact that the information is auditory, visual, touch, feel ect, basically all the senses. The SM is thought to have a very limited capacity of information from the environment in a relatively unprocessed way, with a duration of less than 2 seconds. Information in the SM is lost through decay and passed on to the STM through attention. The second stage in the MSM is the short-term memory (STM). ...read more.

Middle

The findings were that participants who recalled the list immediately remembered the first and last few words best, participants that recalled the list after a delay only remembered the first few words, and both groups of participants had difficulty recalling words from the middle of the list. The researchers concluded that words from the beginning of the list were remembered because they had entered long term memory (they called this the primacy effect), and words at the end of the list were remembered well in the immediate recall condition because they were still in short term memory (they called this the recency effect). The primacy effect and recency effect can be taken together to provide evidence that human memory has separate short and long term stores, and therefore provides evidence for the validity of the model as it too claims there are separate short term and long term memory stores. Other piece of evidence for the MSM are the cases of HM and Clive Wearing. Both of these patients had severe damage to the areas of their brain that contain the hippocampi (in HM?s case the Hippocampi were removed altogether) ...read more.

Conclusion

Therefore the idea of each unitary store being a passive warehouse can simply not be the case as HM clearly retained some long-term memories when he should have lost all of them. Also HM, though unable to make new long-term memories could learn new skills, one example of this was the pursuit rotor task in which he simply had to use a pencil to follow a wavering line on a rotating disc. Each time he was asked to repeat the task he was unable to remember ever having seen the disc before, but on each occasion he became more accurate through practice. HM had therefore learned a new skill, which must be stored in long term memory, and so the idea that long term memory is a single unitary store as represented by the multi store model must be incorrect; there must be more than one type of long term memory. Overall a huge criticism of the MSM is that it is too reductionist to explain the complexities and this is supported by the cases I have already gone over. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Cognitive Psychology essays

  1. SHORT TERM MEMORY

    30 participants gave their consent for this investigation. Only 20 participants were needed for this investigation, so the final 20 names of the needed participants were drawn out of a bowl. These 20 names consisted of 10 males and 10 females. Leaving 10 participants unneeded. The 20 selected participants were then put into 2 groups resulting in 5 of each s*x in each group.

  2. Investigating the short-term memory

    And the stopwatch allowed the investigation to be more precise and accurate. Groups 2 were given music to listen to after the 1 minute period, so a music player was needed. Pens and paper were also needed as the participants needed to record their result on them.

  1. The effect of primacy and recency on recall

    A similar study was conducted by Murdock (1962) in which he aimed to investigate whether the position of nouns in a list affected recall. He also aimed to discover if both STM and LTM were involved in the implication of serial position. Murdock conducted a procedure very similar to Glanzer and Cunitz although he only used one condition; none of his participants were given a distracter task.

  2. Psychology Retrospective Interference coursework

    Since they are not fully "informed", the participants were being deceived. However, both the British Psychological Society and American Psychological Association agree that deception is unavoidable in certain cases. This was also dealt effectively by debriefing all participants after the experiment has ended.

  1. Primacy and Recency effect

    dual memory model because of the emphasis on short term memory and long term memory, investigated and explained how information flows from one storage system to another. The multi store model consists of 3 structural components; the sensory stores, short-term memory store and the long-term memory store.

  2. Investigation into acoustic and visual encoding in short-term memory

    It is thought that some kind of structural change occurs in the brain when a memory is laid down. Hebb (1949) believed that as a result of excitation of the nerve cells a brief memory trace is laid down. At this precise stage of the process, which corresponds to STM, the trace is very fragile and likely to be disrupted.

  1. Some psychologists believe that we simply rehearse things and that is how we remember. ...

    Group one completed the questionnaire, whilst being presented with the smells in a bottle and then again in the presence of unrelated smells. Group two filled out the questionnaire firstly with the unrelated smells and then again with the related smells.

  2. Investigate into the Primacy and Recency effect

    However, Glanzer and Cunitz (1966) found that counting backwards for only 10 seconds between the end of the list presentation and the start of recall (thus producing and interference task) virtually eliminated the recency effect, but had no other effect on recall.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work