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AS and A Level: Christianity
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Colmcille was a man of incredible pragmatic gifts. He knew that where there was faction and political instability, his mission was impossible, and by establishing a Christian Church, he also gave peace to two tribes who were at war. Long after the death of Colmcille, Iona was the outpost of the Celtic Church in the area and the "citadel and retreat" of Celtic missionaries. Ad�mnan, a hagiographer at the time of Colmcille, and author of Colmcille's Life, tells us that "He could not pass the space of even a single hour, without applying himself either to prayer, or reading, or writing, or else to some manual labour."
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Justice is an important moral principle that applies to all areas of human life. On the personal level, Tika (Justice) directs each of us to give to Te Atua (God)
At household, community, societal, national and international levels, various aspects of the above need to be provided, as well as commitment to various democratic institutions that do not become corrupted by special interests and agendas. Poverty affects millions of people all over the world, both in developed and developing countries. More than 2 billion (one in five) people live on less than U.S$1 a day. As the margin of the rich and the poor widens, global poverty to day has increased, the middle class cannot catch up with the rich and slid back among the poor causing the numbers of
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However St Paul managed to become one of the apostles greatest assets as he went on to teach to not only Jews but to pagans also. "Because this man is my chosen instrument to bring my name before pagans and pagan kings and before the people of Israel." Acts 9:15. This allowed the Christian church to grow as more believers were joining thus the Christian church's faith began to grow. Two of the best known definitions of a miracle are that of St.
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When Paul and Barnabas arrived in Pisidian Antioch they went to the synagogue were the president asked them to address the Jews. This is Paul's first speech in Acts and in it he uses kerygma as well as quoting the Old Testament Isaiah 55:3 and many Jews and devout converts become believers. However during the next Sabbath when the whole town had gathered to hear the word of God, some Jews got jealous and used blasphemies and contradicted everything that Paul said.
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Tertullus goes on to say that if Felix was to ask him that "you would find out for yourself the truth of all our accusations against this man." And this is when Felix motioned Paul to speak. This is Paul's defence in which he began with a captatio benevolentiae, although it was considerably more modest and moderate than Tertullus had been: he then began to refute the prosecution's allegations one by one. Firstly he was not a trouble maker since he went to Jerusalem as a pilgrim to worship, not as an agitator to cause a riot, and his accuser
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It may be that the Galatians saw the freedom as a motive for indulgence, they were free from the Law, so they saw it obliquely as freedom to sin, it may be that these were antinomialists. However J. Knox stresses Paul does not advocate such a stance; "He stands for freedom from the Law but he wants to make clear that he does not stand for moral license" Such scholarship reflects that the line of Paul's argument may be similar to that of the given assertion that 'this letter is a plea for the responsible use of freedom' thus from the offset it is justifiable that to acclaim the validity of such a statement.
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Give an account of the contribution made by Colmcille (Columba) to the development of the Catholic Celtic Church (35 marks)
Colmcille was educated by Cruithnechan, who was his foster father. Foster fathers were not people who took care of people, but rather helped them develop spiritually. Columba also studied under the Christian bard Gemman, before Finnian of Clonard introduced him to monastic living. It was in Gemman that he was ordained a priest, and then completed his education under Mobhi at Glasnevin and continued to have associations with some with Finnian of Moville and Enda of Aran. In 536, in Derry, he set up monastic foundations, aged only twenty five.
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David Hume criticises the analogical form of the argument, and his criticism particularly applies to Paley. He points out the problems we have in the world like evil and suffering, the pointless existence of unnecessary features, i.e. birds with wings that cannot fly. He also insists that the works of humans and those of nature do not resemble each other sufficiently enough for us to conclude they have similar causes and that the world resembles a vegetable more than it does a human made machine. Therefore it must be random chance that life exists on this world.
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This implies that people possess 'spark' of divinity within them, which sets its relationship with God. Two, loan and destiny which implies that God is providential God who through nature or other means is the only being who may directly terminate someone's life. Three, respect and honour, and this shows that we are created to respect parents, property, marriage, husband and neighbour. We were created for a purpose, which we must fulfil, and this involves 'choosing life', preserving it and making fruitful.
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Lukan sources serve to highlight that sin has a consequence thus we should be wary of this. One of the most notable acts of sin which occurs in the bible is the betrayal of Jesus by Judas, Judas gave Jesus to the authorities for thirty pieces of silver and upon receiving the reward killed himself thus inferring that from his sin he experienced an alienation from God thus saw life as worthless. In Acts chapter 5, the reader is introduced to Ananias and Sapphira, who withheld money from the church, however whilst they would have been allowed to withhold some
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With reference to other aspects of human experience, comment on the view that monastic spirituality is an outdated concept in the 21st Century?
However, in actual fact this can often lead to the religious organization becoming less popular, as they may lose the devoted members, who aren't looking for a watered down religion. Pope Benedict said that "relativism...does not recognise anything as being certain...its highest goals are one's own ego and desire." Relativism is the belief that concepts such as right and wrong, goodness and badness, or truth and falsehood are not definite and that they alter in different cultures and situations. It could be described as the "cherry picking" for faith.
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With reference to Patrick's confession, outline your knowledge and understanding of the main themes of his book.
Whenever Patrick was younger, he was most definitely sinful. He did not know the true God, and although he was brought up in a very Christian family, he was tempted by polytheistic way of life, and pagan practices. Patrick tells us of how at the age of sixteen, he was taken captive by the Irish and made to become a slave. He believed this was Gods rightful way of punishing him, saying "We deserved this fate, because we had turned away from our God." He also tells us in the letter of the times he encountered as a young man in his mission; a specific example that links in with the ongoing theme is a problem he experienced in his mission.
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There are many types of evil, for example moral evil, John Hick best describes this, and he claims that moral evil and pain inflicted by human upon each other is needed for moral development. People must be able to, and free to, inflict suffering on one another. Otherwise there would be no moral choices, the murderer who shouts somebody could never hurt or kill. There would be no distinction between right and wrong. Moral evil for Hick has a positive value.
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The cosmological argument can be found in Aquinas's Five Ways, Aquinas argued that because things in the world move and change and come into being there must be a first mover or a first causer. This is because nothing can move itself or cause itself. Aquinas rejected the possibility of an infinite regress of movers because this would not allow for any subsequent movers in the chain. The basic form of the theistic cosmological argument may then look like this: P1: All events require a cause.
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Dualists, will disagree with the statement 'We are all basically physical beings' as they believe that people have both a mind and a physical body. The Greeks saw the body as a tomb or prison from the soul. The ultimate destiny of the soul was to be released from the body. This sort of idea is inherent in the Hindu idea of reincarnation, where the aim of the soul is not to be reincarnated into another body, but to be absorbed into the oneness of God.
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A Jedi Knight handpicks a Padawan (apprentice) to pass on all their knowledge, to protect each other, and to grow in the ways of the Force. This aspect can also be found in the Bible, in the book of Mark 6:7, "Jesus called the twelve to him, and sent them out in pairs" (Qtd in Peterson 1834). Dick Staub suggests that Jesus did this so that the disciples could unlearn what they have learned to this point in their lives, so that they could fully rely on God for everything; much like the Jedi rely on the Force (Staub 118).
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In what ways might evil and suffering create philosophical problems for people with religious beliefs
And if he is all loving and he wouldn't want us to suffer like this he might not know it was happening and so the second angle of the triangle is disproved and finally if he is both all loving and all-knowing he would not want people to get hurt and he knew it was happening so maybe it is the fact that he simply wants to help but he cannot as he is not all powerful. The inconsistent triad is a very big philosophical problem as it is a very logical series of suggestions and seems perfectly logical that
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Aquinas argued that God is the primary cause and therefore the first mover. He is the initiator of change cause and motion, in and of all things. In the world and the universe some thing are in motion., also Aquinas said that anything that is in motion has been moved by another forced or being. The most important point is that this movement cannot go to infinity. Infinity is a highly improbable possibility. Plato and Aristotle both posited first cause arguments, though each had certain notable caveats.
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This shows that we can be open in our relationship with "our father" and can ask for forgiveness or help in times of need, we can ask God for anything in our prayers as long as our intentions are right and are not to benefit ourselves in a materialistic way. With this said we are not to devalue the name of God but should keep his name holy as stated in line two of the Our Father, "hallowed be thy name" a point which is clearly supported through the words of Jesus when dying on the cross "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
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The "demons" that exist in the man who is simply known as Legion, taunt him and keep him excluded from society; the man is called legion in reference to the numerous demons that posses him. Despite Jesus being outnumbered by the demons he orders them from the man and spares them from banishment to the abyss, when confronted by Jesus the demons cower and beg for mercy, further stating Jesus control over the spiritual world.
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He also hypothesised that everything is drawn to its telos by the prime mover (God) which has had a great effect on modern religion. Aquinas then elaborated on this idea moving it into the realm of Christian morality. He posited that natural ethics was not only learned from observation of the natural because it seemed that the cravings of the body, which were by all means natural, were not all moral. As such he thought that in order to discover what is good we must use observation in combination with excellent reason. He used the caveat excellent because he believed that reason could be corrupted by the trials of human existence.
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However, am I then putting my own fear in front of her ambition? Was I then going to put a halt on something so life changing? As a leader of the youth club, I knew it was in within my power to change something and act upon it. I decide to confront my own personal worries and pluck up the courage to talk to her guardian, I mentioned about the camping trip that the youth club was participating in, and some youth members there was an option to join in the service crew.
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It is likely that the original readers were gentiles (non-Jews) as Mark explains Jewish customs and words. Mark would have based his Gospel on stories about Jesus that were retold in churches at the time. The passage appears in slightly different forms in both Matthew and Luke. In the passage, I have chosen Jesus indirectly answers the disciple's question about who is greatest. Given the fact that this was a newly performing community of disciples without established status positions and, given that this was an honour/shame culture, we could assume that the disciples are wondering who among themselves is the greatest.
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"supposing [God] to be finitely perfect...a satisfactory account may then be given of natural and moral evil." The evidential problem of evil is similar, but is not a logical problem in that it does not seek to show inconsistency in theistic belief. Rather it asks: "for what advantage can there be in the sufferings of millions of the lower animals throughout almost endless time?" - Darwin. In other words, which of two possibilities is more reasonable? 1. An omnipotent, omnibenevolent God created a world full of gratuitous evil.
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Indeed, the stance of fideism states that reason plays no part in belief. "Whoever attempts to demonstrate the existence of God...is an excellent subject for a comedy of higher lunacy." - Soren Kierkegaard. Moderate fideists suggest that reason can actually be destructive to one's faith. They claim that reason leads to arrogance by encouraging the idea that human reason alone will suffice and that God unnecessary for moral or spiritual direction. Whilst moderate theists view reason as a barrier to true faith however, (thus disregarding natural theology as irrelevant) extreme theists go so far as to agree with Tertullian when he said (AD 155-222)
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