Explain the Cosmological argument for the existence of God.

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Kate Verity Blueman

  1. Explain the Cosmological argument for the existence of God.(25 marks)

Thomas Aquinas built upon the idea of the Cosmological argument the most by attempting to answer the question “ why is there a universe rather than nothing at all?” , Aquinas stated that “ Nothing comes from nothing, the universe exists, so something must have made it, that can only be God” Aquinas developed his ideas based upon an idea the ancient Greeks used; like the ancient Greek arguments, Aquinas used the natural world and the senses to reason from , thus the Cosmological argument is a posterior ( based on reason and facts) as opposed to an a priori approach through assumptions.

    The origins of the cosmological arguments come from the ideas of the Greek philosophers Plato and his understudy Aristotle.

    Plato believed that there was a prime mover which was the ultimate source of change as it alone possessed the power to change both itself and others around it , this he called the idea of motion. Plato also believed that only souls could be primary movers and therefore that whatever causes the whole universe to move must be a soul, a wholly ultimate, intelligent primary mover. From his idea of the one primary mover, Plato suggested that there were secondary movers ( for example humans) who could only change with the help of a primary mover, therefore the prime mover could not be dependent on any other being or it would not be primary.

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   Aristotle took Plato’s idea and developed it , he too said that all changes in the universe must come from one ultimate source, however he uses a different method to make the non existence of one ultimate being an impossibility. Aristotle asks human beings to consider two statements, firstly “ The universe has an ultimate cause” and secondly, “ The universe has no ultimate cause” by showing that the latter appears to be an impossibility, he only leaves us with one option , being that there must be one ultimate being; Aristotle used “ Reductio Ad Absurdum” which means ...

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