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AS and A Level: Judaism
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It means that they tell us to do something or not to do something. A good number of these Mitzvot are no longer possible for us to keep. Some, because the Temple was destroyed and the Jews can no longer do the ancient sacrifices, and others because so many of us live in the diaspora and cannot follow the land mitvot. Also, long before it was common anywhere in the world, the Jews stopped all forms of Capital Punishment even though it was a mitzvah in the Torah.
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In this essay I will explain these three different aspects of Kashrut into detail so there is a clear understanding of what the laws are to keeping kosher. With regards to food, one must understand that there are separate laws for different types of food. The requirements for animals are that they must chew the cud and they must also have split hooves in order to be kosher. One famous animal known for not being kosher is the pig. It is treif because it has split hooves however, is doesn't chew the cud.
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Many find it difficult to process or even believe that groups of people, in particular Jews and Homosexuals, would be punished for no valid reason as they were by the Nazis during the Holocaust. The extremities of the deaths seemingly lead people to form the idea that the targeted groups were in the wrong, which of course was not the case. It is not uncommon today for young people today to use the term, 'Jew' or 'gay' in a derogatory way.
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They will make a decision that they believe is protective of human life and maintains the covenant with God. All variants agree that life belongs to God and is a sacred gift, created in the God's image. This equal value for every individual life drives a responsibility to protect life and heal the sick. Such claims are supported theologically, in the Decalogue; the 6th commandment "thou shalt not kill" suggests the protection of human life. In every bioethical issue, Jews seek to preserve the dignity of life and maintain their covenant with God. However, actual Bioethical teachings may differ based on each variants source of ethical guidance.
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They are Biblical Criticism, textual studies of ancient Manu scriptures and the influences of other cultures. The view of the biblical criticism is that the Pentateuch, the first five books of the Torah, is composed from different sources. The explanation was first put forward around the 16th century. Spinoza is concluded that Moses was told to read the Book of Law to the people. This indicates it must have been much shorter otherwise it would have taken a longer time to dictate. 'This must mean that in the book in question was much shorter than the Pentateuch' written by (Spinoza, Cohn - Sherbok).
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Zionism is the name given to the belief that Jewish people should have a national homeland in which to live. It is a political view based on the Jewish people's religious beliefs about Israel. Zionism first began in the 19th century. It was a movement which aimed to give Jewish people a homeland in Israel. The main two reasons for the start of the Zionist movement were because the Jewish people longed to have Israel as their homeland again and secondly because of anti-Semitism against Jews which was greatly experienced in the 19th Century e.g.
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Why did he not protect them here? Was the promise broken is what some Jews might say. Jews may question the existence of God as a result of the Holocaust. Where was God and why didn't he stop it? In this discussion the "problem of evil" arises. This states, How can an all loving and omnipotent God let suffering into the world? If God is omni benevolent (all good) why did he allow evil to happen? If God is omnipotent (all powerful) why didn't he stop it? Unfortunately there is no one right or wrong answer on this but individual Jews will carry their own opinions.
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for example 'thou shall not kill' an orthodox would defiantly not contemplate killing another leaving person even if they were in pain as it goes against the 6th commandment. As well as keeping the commandments the orthodox believe in the idea of physical being and the belief that the messiah is coming and that he will enlighten the world. Others ways which the orthodox Jews are able to express their belief and full holiness by performing areas such as Niddah and holding this family purity to the full extent, for example The Torah describes niddah, as 'the ritual impurity due
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The 10 commandments is an example of this. It is the summary that God gave Jews to follow. History says that they were written on stones that Moses brought down from mount Sinai, according to the Torah. There are two accounts of the ten sayings. The Ten Commandments describe people's duty towards God and each other. Moses also received the 'Torah', a holy book, on mount Sinai on his journey from Egypt to 'the promised land'. This trip was one of the most important events in Jewish history, when they escaped from slavery, leaded by Moses.
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The other view which is that sitting in the sukkah is not the most important thing of Sukkot. The reason why some people hold this is because a festival is not about one thing but many things just because it is called one of the things we do in the festival doesn't mean that is the main thing of the festival. In Sukkot it is not just sitting in the hut but also shaking the different species, so the main thing of the festival can't be just sitting in the sukkah.
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The Sabbath, how it is presented in Mark's Gospel and how different Christian denominations worship on the Sabbath.
"The Sabbath was made for man, and not man for the Sabbath" (Mark, 2, 27). In Jesus' argument with the Scribes and Pharisees he defended his disciples for plucking ears of corn to help a hungry person and he argued that Sabbath is not broken in cases of necessity or by acts of charity as is the way that his disciples were accused of 'breaking the Sabbath'. The Sabbath is now celebrated on Sundays by Christians celebrating mass. In Mark's Gospel, Mark speaks of the Sabbath in a very controversial way.
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Sabbath is a day to be honoured and enjoyed as a gift from god. The Pharisees The Pharisees had a great deal of influence in the synagogues and in every Jewish community. They devoted their lives to studying the Torah. To make sure that gods commandments were followed in daily lives they created many extra rules on matters such as washing, eating, the Sabbath and festivals. Jesus said that the Pharisees had created too many laws, making the religious life a burden rather then a joy. The Pharisees created very selfish laws that were mostly beneficial towards them and not for the Sabbath and once Jesus was picking corn with his disciples and they questioned the disciples and criticized them because technically they were working (harvesting)
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Jews reflect upon God as the creator of all things. Simchat Torah commemorates the acceptance of the Torah and God's counselling on how His chosen people should live Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kippur both call upon Jews to reflect upon their actions to God and towards each other. They are times of forgiving. Another way that festivals are very important is because of the children of Jews. They are the Jewish future and without them, the faith would die. Jews rely on the traditions and symbolism to pass down through generations.
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Practising Jews study the Torah as it contains history of the Jews and tradition including Exodus, Moses and Race. Jews celebrate the Torah (rejoice in the law,) at the Simchat Festival. The Torah is very important to practising Jews as it is a hallowed gift that gives them guidance and contains all of their beliefs. The Torah directs the lives of the Jews' in many ways: * Morality * Relationships * Hospitality * Charity * Marriage * Purity. Therefore, the Torah is a very valuable possession and is truly honoured. The Torah also represents the covenant made between a Jew and God, it's their side of the deal.
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However in a progressive synagogue, men and women will sit together, both genders may wear traditional garments, the rabbi may be a male or female, and some of the service is in English. In addition, progressive Jews are much more open to adaptations to Jewish law, and believe that it is their right to change traditions to modern life situations of the current society culture. Orthodox Jews however believe that the scriptures are sacred and should be kept divine. They keep all Jewish festivals in a traditional way and follow Jewish laws as far as they possibly can.
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These different views are needed in the World because not everyone holds the same view on the Sabbath. Fundamentalists think that every little detail of the Sabbath Law should be observed and carried out. Their view, in the opinion of others, is somewhat extreme and is probably the group that would concur with the statement in question most. If there were no rules telling Christians what to do on the Sabbath this would probably be the group that would formulate some.
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Explain how the attitude of Jesus towards the Sabbath in Marks Gospel might affect Christians today.
They were the people who the public went to if they had any questions on how to please God or how you should live life and be "safe". The Pharisees attitude as I have briefly mentioned above was one that made sure everyone carried out every one of the 516-619 oral laws that existed and monitored the people making sure they ere not violating the Sabbath law by doing something that, for example, existed under the 39 categories of which work could be classified under.
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Words of the Prophets are true, 7.) Moses was the greatest Prophet, 8.) the Torah was given to Moses, 9.) there is no other Torah, 10.) God knows the thoughts and deeds of all mankind, 11.) God rewards the good and punishes the wicked, 12.) The Messiah will come, 13.) The dead will be resurrected. The main source of Jewish teachings comes from the Torah in both its forms. Torah means "teachings," and is God's instructions for them. It teaches how to act, think, and even hoe to view life. The Torah contains 613 commandments.
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Firstly the Jews believe he is immanent, is able and willing to act in human affairs, this is supported in the Amidah where it says: "You support the falling and heal the sick You free prisoners And keep faith with those that sleep in the dust ... Who can perform such mighty deeds?" The Jewish faith also tells us that G-d is transcendant, which means that he is beyond both space and time and therefore does not intervene in the affairs of humans.
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Back to the original question the problem and arguments occur when talking about evil people. During torah times we were told of a place designed for these sinners referred to as "Sheol". When comparing this ideology to the idea of "Hell" believed by followers of the Christian belief, it was agreed that this is not the case and in fact Judaism does not believe in Hell. - Which is believed to be a mans worst nightmare and often depicted as a fiery underworld.
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“Christians should not take part in sporting events or go shopping on a Sunday”Do you agree, give reasons for your answer showing that you have thought about more than one point of view.
However in modern day society it is accepted that to devote a full day to God is very difficult and something which is, sadly not very common anymore. The majority of 21st century Christians would probably agree that Sunday is a day of leisure nowadays and to go to Mass on a Sunday is regarded enough to keep the commandment.
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Naturally people want to know how to upkeep it as a way of recognising God's sovereignty. This means that no unnecessary work should done but often this can be taken to far. On 5th February 200 a oil crew on the island of Lewis refused to refuel a plane carrying hospital patients. According to the free Church of Scotland no work should be done on the Sabbath. A spokesman said "The island has too many people who are full of religion, but who lack Christianity." This is quite true but most Christians don't hold such fundamentalist views.
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The orthodox Jews believe that the Torah is the exact word of God as given to Moses who carved out the 10 commandments. The orthodox Jews believe that Moses was only secretary to God and what is written in the Torah is exactly Gods words from Mount Sinai. This makes it very important for orthodox Jews to keep all 613 mitzvot. As a result of this strict following of the law means that the orthodox Jews have strict ways of following the Sabbath.
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This is because the early Christians changed their Sabbath to Sunday because this was the day of the week that Jesus rose from the dead. Some Christians go to church on Sundays, but this is a small majority of people. Some Christians feel that people should not take part in sporting events or go shopping on a Sunday because of the Sabbath's law of not working.
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