• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

The Ethical Debate Concerning Cloning.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

The Ethical Debate Concerning Cloning In the year that has elapsed since the announcement of Dolly's birth, there has been much discussion of the ethical implications of cloning humans. Although the simple use of the word "clone" may have negative connotations, many people have resigned themselves to the idea of cloning cows that produce more milk or using a cloned mouse for use in controlled experimentation. However, the idea of cloning humans is a highly charged topic. Several authors have attempted to outline some of the ethical objections to cloning while at the same time minimizing the role religion plays in this debate. The objections posed by Leon Kass and James Q. Wilson provide basic arguments that deserve consideration. Kass outlines the possibility of clones through the idea that cloning is neither inherently good nor bad in its process but that can be used to produce both good and bad results. Kass outlines three general contexts in which cloning is discussed. First he looks at the outcome of cloning on the child. One main objection to cloning is that it will naturally force parents to treat their new child differently than they would one that is born through sexual union. Technically the process of reproduction would have been different, but Kass sees no reason why parents would follow this process for producing a child unless they truly wanted it. This argument is generally used to warn others of the potential social harms that a child might face. A child that is born from cloning will be different from other children in the way he or she was created as well as in the fact that he or she will have the same genetic structure as someone else already living. This child may be faced with social pressures that he or she will have to deal with. A second argument for cloning starts with the idea of reproductive rights. ...read more.

Middle

These became the subject of study, debate, and finally, the decisions of Councils on every level - local, regional, provincial and ecumenical, all guided by the Holy Spirit. THE PRESENT STAND OF THE CHURCH Many controversial issues presented to us during these days of rapid change have reached the earliest stages in the process of dealing with controversial issues. People are beginning the search for answers - either with respect to attacks on the faith and practices of the Orthodox Church, or to new and previously unimagined problems - that can be formulated so as to preserve our salvation in Christ and to reflect the truths of the Faith. Often, since new issues arising from the rapid development of technology affect not only individual church members, but society as a whole, the attempt to answer the question for and within the Church also provides a basis for addressing these same questions on the public scene. In some cases the controversial issues can be addressed from long-standing doctrinal, ethical and canonical traditions. Where this is the case, there is little or no debate in the Church. One example is the Church's position on the legalization of abortion on demand. Since the Church went through the same debate in the early fourth century, it is not difficult to determine "the mind of the Church" on this issue, and to apply it to the current discussion. COMPLICATIONS FROM TECHNOLOGY The process, however, is not so easy in reference to the many issues which deal with the concerns arising from the amazing development of medical technology. How, for example, would the tradition of revelation address the issue of artificial insemination? The first question it would ask is if there are any implications in it from the perspective of salvation and the truths of Faith. In this case, since it clearly impinges on marriage, family, the relation between spouses, and the lives of human beings, there is an obvious connection. ...read more.

Conclusion

But still I like to think that even kibitzers can sometimes ask good questions. Let me try to summarize four points about medicine, morals, and religion. (1) Some people believe in God's existence; all of us believe that men exist. Our medical philosophy should therefore be humanistically, humanely motivated. If human compassion is reinforced by a theistic faith, all the better. But it is only better if the faith happens to reinforce the compassion. Alas, not all religions do. (2) Patients are persons, not just bodies. A truly human being is mental and moral as well as physical. The physical side, physiology, spontaneous or artificially supported biological functions, by themselves do not make a human being. The practice of medicine can become the ministry of medicine only if we realize that the quality of life is more important than mere quantity. Our devotion is not to life but to human life. (3) In order to be morally responsible we should not wear blinders, seeing only one patient at a time. We need a telescope to see our true obligations. In our society and culture there are so many of us and we are so interdependent that we need mathematical morality, ethical arithmetic, a statistical sense of obligation-not the first-come-first-served simple doctor-patient ethics of the horse-and buggy era. (4)We shall have to learn to live without absolutes, such as "Our sole obligation is to the patient under care" and "Life must be prolonged as long as possible" and "We must not disclose what we have learned in professional confidence" and "No cost is too much to cure a human ill." Instead of moral norms or principles of such undiscriminating and universal application we must make medical decisions by a situation ethics; what is right depends on loving concern for persons and the variables in each case. Situation ethics is clinical ethics. No good clinician finds the answer to any patient's problem in a prefabricated form out of a book. He sees the patient. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Practical Questions section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Practical Questions essays

  1. The key difference between someone using counselling skills and a qualified and trained counsellor ...

    she is sleeping with her boyfriend, they are both thirteen; the dilemma being that both students are under the Age of Consent. The key dilemma in all these situations is when you break confidentiality in order to maintain organisational and legal responsibilities.

  2. Discuss the Relationship between law and morals. Consider how far the law seeks to ...

    This makes it illegal to possess any obscene material with a view to its sale or other publication. An example of this put into action is in the case of Shaw v DPP (1961). In this case the defendant had published a booklet of the names, addresses, photographs and other

  1. RE euthanasia for and against

    Unlike utilitarianism, this can deal with the individual case. There is however a major flaw in this argument, which is that it, is a slippery slope argument. It over steps some ethical boundaries such as if we were to legalise euthanasia, then it could lead to lots of justifications such

  2. The founder of situation ethics, Joseph Fletcher felt that the individual should be of ...

    It always provides an alternative Christian ethic that is consistent with the representation of Jesus in the Gospels, therefore it can be seen as an acceptable ethical theory in the Christian perspective. It revolves around Agape love, which is the major principle, and therefore makes it omnibenovelent.

  1. Ethical Issues Involved In The Legislation of Euthanasia?

    Is it right that the quality of a persons life should be assessed by another person? Since, the view of the assessor will be based on their own experience and knowledge. A relativist would argue that there was no absolute moral position that would resolve this dilemma.

  2. Evaluate the claim that conscience is a reliable guide to ethical decision making.

    Butler's position seems to be that the accuracy of conscience is less important than that it be followed wherever it should point. This has a logic to it - while we might question our private affection to consume poisonous mushrooms, what possible agent could there be which had the authority to direct and second-guess conscience.

  1. Describe the religious and ethical issues raised by human surrogacy.

    Some suggest that the language which is used should be different ? the surrogate mother should be known as the provider and used as an incubator to the genetic child of the couple. There is also the issue of commercial surrogacy and the potential exploitation that can arise from this, particularly in lesser developed countries such as India.

  2. Medical Ethics And Organ Transplants

    Sanctity of life is a primary Christian principle which is important to investigate when looking at organ transplantation and human life. It is defined simply as ?life is of intrinsic value and should be respected and protected?. This shows the theist view to be that life is sacred regardless of religion or race etc.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work