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An investigation into the conditions needed for the successful working of enzymes.

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Introduction

An investigation into the conditions needed for the successful working of enzymes. I am going to carry out a series of investigations on the enzyme catalase. Catalase Catalase is a hemoprotein with four subunits of equal size. It catalyzes the following reaction: Catalase is present in a wide variety of tissues from animals, plants and microorganisms. Mammalian liver contains high concentrates of enzyme. Bovine liver catalase has a molecular weight of 250 000 with four subunits of equal size. Catalase is found in our blood and cells. When we cut ourselves there is a lot of catalase floating around in both the blood and damaged cells. Hydrogen peroxide is a very good antiseptic which when used on a cut comes into contact with the catalase and turns into water and oxygen. Catalase does this extremely efficiently with up to 200 000 reactions per second. The bubbles you would see in the foam produced are pure oxygen being created by the catalase. * Catalase is also present in potatoes and kidney. * Catalase uses hydrogen peroxide as a substrate as well as a hydrogen acceptor. * Catalase is of interest commercially whenever hydrogen peroxide is used as a germicide. For example, in the food industry for disposing of hydrogen peroxide used in pasteurizing milk prior to cheese making. ...read more.

Middle

This will at what temperature do enzymes work best. I will collect a set of three results. I will repeat each test for a second time to make sure that I was accurate the first time. So in total I will have six sets of results. In each set there will be an observational result, a temperature result and a test for pH result. This will give me a range. Safe testing I am now going to conduct my experiment I will make I will conduct it safely by: 1. Hydrogen peroxide is corrosive so I will ensure that it is handled with care and that I wear safety goggles when I handle it. 2. Every that comes into contact with the hydrogen peroxide will be washed thoroughly after use. 3. As I am concentrating on temperature I will need to use a Bunsen burner for heating the solutions. To ensure that this is done safely a safety mat will be used, goggles will be worn and someone will be with the Bunsen burner while it is on at all times. 4. During this experiment raw liver will be handled so hygiene is an important factor, hands must be washed. Predictions Temperature * I predict that out of the three tests I will be conducting the enzymes will work best in the set at room temperature. ...read more.

Conclusion

In two books written by Dr. Edward Howell he develops the theory that humans are given a limited supply of enzyme energy at birth, and that it is up to us to replenish our supply of enzymes to ensure that their vital jobs get done. Howell believes that the more food enzymes you get, the longer and healthier you live. Food enzymes are destroyed at temperatures at temperatures above 118. This means that cooked and processed foods contain few, if any enzymes. So it is very important to eat lots of raw fruit and vegetables and these are foods in which enzymes are active. Another role of enzymes in the body is detoxification - the breaking down of toxic substances so that they are excreted and cannot build up and possibly cause harm. Although this is done by metabolic enzymes research shows that enzymes in the food we eat (although not food enzymes) may help our bodies do this. Enzymes and genetic engineering. In genetic engineering scientists use restriction enzymes to isolate a segment of DNA that contains a gene of interest, for example, the gene regulating insulin production. A plasmid extracted from its bacteria and treated in the same way can hybridize with this fragments ends of complementary DNA. The hybrid plasmid is reincorporated into the bacterial cell where it multiplies as part of the cells DNA. A large number of daughter cells can be cultured and their gene products extracted for human use. ...read more.

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