• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month
Page
  1. 1
    1
  2. 2
    2
  3. 3
    3
  4. 4
    4
  5. 5
    5
  6. 6
    6
  7. 7
    7
  8. 8
    8
  9. 9
    9
  10. 10
    10
  11. 11
    11
  12. 12
    12
  13. 13
    13
  14. 14
    14
  15. 15
    15
  16. 16
    16
  17. 17
    17

An investigation to show the effect of temperature on the mass of casein present in Marvel powdered milk after a time limit of fifteen minutes.

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

An investigation to show the effect of temperature on the mass of casein present in Marvel powdered milk after a time limit of fifteen minutes. Introduction: In this investigation, I will be looking at enzymes; how they work and what factors affect them. I have chosen to carry out an experiment that uses a protease; an enzyme that specifically breaks down proteins and this is called "Savinase". Savinase is an enzyme that is frequently used in laundry detergents and it hydrolyses the peptide bonds between the amino acids present in a protein, therefore 'breaking them down'. In my investigation, I will be using this enzyme together with a substrate of casein of which I will obtain from Marvel(tm) powdered milk. I will be using temperature as my variable as I am investigating what effect temperature has on the mass of casein present in my solution after a time limit of fifteen minutes. To give me an accurate reading of how much protein is present I will be using 'Albustix' which are strips coated in an indicator that changes colour depending on the amount of protein present in the solution. Hypothesis: In this experiment, I will be looking to see the effect of increasing the temperature on the mass of casein present after fifteen minutes in a water bath using the enzyme Savinase. I will be using water baths of varying temperatures (from 10�C- 60�C) and testing the amount of protein present with 'Albustix'. I believe that as the temperature is increased from 10�C to 60�C, more of the protein in the solution will be broken down as temperature is a factor that increases the rate of a reaction- more kinetic energy is given to the enzyme and substrate molecules which mean that they collide more frequently, and therefore the reaction is sped up. This can be proved by testing the efficiency of my enzyme in varying temperatures, the enzyme should function best at higher temperatures. ...read more.

Middle

The temperature of the water baths will be varied, I will be using temperatures of 10�C, 20�C, 30�C, 40�C, 50�C and 60�C as I feel that these temperatures will provide me with a wide range of results and will hopefully provide a trend that coincides with my hypothesis. However, a water bath's temperature can fluctuate and because of this reason, a thermometer was placed in the bath to monitor the temperature. This thermometer was checked every minute to ensure that the temperature was constant. Bibliography: NAS Molecules and Cells- John Adds, Erica Larkcom, Ruth Miller- pages 33-35 www.ncbe.reading.ac.uk- page 'enzymes for schools'. Diagrams are from- www.schoolscience.co.uk Information on biological washing powders- http://www.lsbu.ac.uk/biology/enztech/detergent.html Method for actual investigation: 1) The first thing to do is to make up the chosen enzyme,Savinase, to the desired concentration. I have chosen 3% and this concentration is obtained by measuring out 3g of powdered enzyme and adding this to 97cm3 of distilled water. A mass balance should be used in order to achieve accurate measurements. The solution should be placed into a beaker. 2) Next, the substrate must be made up from its powdered form into a liquid. This was done by adding distilled water to it. The substrate that should be used is casein which is present in milk. I am using Marvel powdered milk as it is a source of protein, of which my enzyme hydrolyses. The solution should be placed into a beaker. 3) Seven test-tubes should be placed into a test tube rack. These should be marked with what temperature water bath they're going to be placed into using a chinograph pencil. To these test tubes add 5mls of the substrate. 4) To the substrate add 5mls of the enzyme solution apart from one test tube. The test tube containing both the substrate and the enzyme should be added to a water bath of the desired temperature. ...read more.

Conclusion

I then had to observe the beaker of water at all times to ensure that the temperature did not fluctuate and therefore make my experiment an unfair test. When looking at my results, they are as I had expected them to be. However, I would have expected more protein to have been hydrolysed then the amount that actually was. For example, at 60�C, I would have expected to see a trace of protein remaining however, 0.30 grams still remained. At 60�C, the Savinase and powdered milk molecules would have a lot of kinetic energy and therefore a high mass of protein should be hydrolysed. Overall, I feel that my experiment was a success; I acquired a set of results that are as accurate as possible and I feel that I now have evidence to suggest that the change in temperature alters the rate of reaction between an enzyme and a substrate, between the enzyme Savinase and powdered milk molecules .An increase in temperature increases the rate, a decrease lowers the rate. In order to establish more precise results, in a future experiment I could use a more sensitive device to test for the mass of protein present, such as a colorimeter which passes light through the substance to analyse how dense it is. This would detect if there were more or less protein molecules present compared to the control test. I could also use different enzymes belonging to the protease group of enzymes to see whether a specific enzyme is more efficient at hydrolyzing protein at a lower temperature which would reduce the amount of energy needed. This would be useful in cleaning items of clothing that had a protein based stain on them, as the enzyme would possibly function efficiently at a low temperature, therefore preventing excessive energy loss. Another method I could use would be to use different sources of protein or I could extend my experiment further by monitoring the temperature at which the most protein was hydrolysed; therefore finding the optimum temperature of the enzyme. Laura Bailey Candidate Number- 0167 ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Molecules & Cells section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Molecules & Cells essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Measurement of protein solutions concentrations by biuret protein assay

    5 star(s)

    The absorbance was read at 550 nm using spectrophotometer. 6. A standard curve of absorbance versus micrograms protein (or vice versa) was prepared, and the concentration of the unknown samples was determined from the curve. A graph of absorbance vs concentration was plotted.

  2. Marked by a teacher

    Beetroot Practical Write up

    3 star(s)

    Accurately measure for the following percentages and correct measuring ratio of distilled water and ethanol o 20% ethanol 80% water, ratio 2.5cm3 of ethanol : 9.5cm3 of water o 15% ethanol 85% water, ratio 2cm3 of ethanol : 10cm3 of water o 10% ethanol 90% water, ratio 1.5cm3 of ethanol

  1. WHAT EFFECT DOES SUBSTRATE HAVE ON THE RATE OF RESPIRATION IN SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE?

    During this time, less saccharomyces cerevisiae respires; producing small volumes of CO2, thus, the overall rate of respiration in a given length of time is slower for disaccharides in comparison to monosaccharides. To wrap up, I predict that the substrate to cause saccharomyces cerevisiae to produce the most CO2 will

  2. An Investigation to determine the effect of Substrate Concentration on the Enzyme Catalase

    will increase, until after some time the rate at which Oxygen is produced would gradually slow down, and eventually completely stop. The initial reaction when the substrate molecules are added to the enzyme molecules, would be very swift, hence, I am expecting my results to produce a straight line on

  1. Trypsin. Hypothesis: - I hypothesize that as the temperature increases the rate of enzyme ...

    Getting over with this I will take 30% concentrated solution of hydrogen peroxide from the bottle. I will also be taking 100ml of hydrogen peroxide using the measuring cylinder. Then I will pour the hydrogen peroxide from the measuring cylinder into the beaker containing water.

  2. An Investigation into How Temperature Affects the activity of Protease Enzymes in Arial washing ...

    Three of the optically perfect crucibles were washed with distilled water, making sure that only the ground sides were handled and the clear sides were not touched (as they needed to remain optically perfect). The appropriate filter was selected, that had the complimentary colour to the colour opacity that was being looked for, blue (470)

  1. This is an investigation to determine the effect of concentration on the activity of ...

    - 24�C therefore every enzyme activity will be affected by the same temperature. This will maintain a steady rate of enzyme activity and keep the temperature constant. > Buffer Solution The buffer solution I will be using is called Sodium Tetraborate.

  2. We are going to find out how different enzymes (in this case, trypsin) concentration ...

    What we are measuring here is how quickly the solution is turning clear. As you can see from the graph, at 0% (with distilled water instead of trypsin) there is no change in absorbancy, meaning no reaction is occurring or that it is happening very slowly.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work