Anatomy and physiology - cells, tissues and systems of the body. Describe the functions of the main cell components

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Describe the functions of the main cell components

Cells are the primary source of the stages in the human body. There are millions of cells in the human body witch together make up the tissues of the body’s organs, but at the same time each individual cell has various components witch have specific structures and functions. These are called organelles such as mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and lysosomes.

    Mitochondria is somewhat similar (as in its functions) to the digestive system. This is because they retrain nutrients and then breaks them down when needed to create energy for the cell. This process is the generation of the cells supply of  (ATP), a source chemical energy which is then available for the cell.

    Lysosomes are produced by the Golgi apparatus consist of various amounts of enzymes which breaks down fragments pf organelles and larger molecules. They travel throughout the cell and using the enzymes they carry destroys bacteria and foreign bodies that have entered the cell.  

     Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has two types, rough ER and smooth ER.

Rough ER is surrounded by ribosome’s witch gives it its rough sandpaper type look. It contains proteins and acts as a temporary storage area.

Smooth ER has no ribosomes attached to them and is involved in the metabolism of lipids.  

    Golgi apparatus store proteins in it flattened fluid-filled sacs to transport to other organelles or upwards away from the cell as secretion. It is also responsible for the production of lysosomes.  

    Ribosomes are not only jus attached to the outer layer of the rough ER, they can be found on outer surface of the nuclear envelope and throughout the whole inside of the cell. Using RNA ribosomes also produce proteins from amino acids witch then is exported and used within the cell

Structure of the cell and its functions


Describe the structure of the main tissues of the body and their role on the functioning of two named body organs.

The body has four main types of tissue which are connective, epithelial, muscle and nervous. Together they take a role in the functioning’s of the body’s organ structures. These tissues are: connective, epithelial, muscle and nerve.

   Connective tissue is used throughout the whole body which has two elements, sells and matrix. The matrix is the space between cells and the protein based fibre which are selected by the connective cells and can be flexible or even hard and firm. Connective tissue binds supports and strengthens other body tissues throughout the body and at the same time protects, transports materials, insolates and separates structures around the body. In the skin you will find areola and adipose tissue with are types of connective tissues.

    Areola tissue is a loose connective tissue in the skin which provides elasticity due to its semi-filled matrix, tensile strength and connects and surrports other tissues in the deeper layer of the skin called the dermis.

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Areola tissue in the stomach is also found between the linings of the muscular coat binding them together. It gives these layers elasticity and tensile strength.

    Another type of connective tissue called Adipose is also found in the skin which consists of lipid filled cells that are called adipocytes there are two types of adipose tissue, white and brown. The skin consists of whit adipose tissue. The tissue varies in thickness due to the size and amount of these cells present, so there would be more in the sole of feet and palms of the hand and less ...

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