• Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

Atmospheric Pollution

Extracts from this document...

Introduction

Open Book-Coursework Introduction This open book report is about atmospheric pollution, and I will be mostly focusing on photochemical smog. Photochemical smog is a thick haze in the troposphere and is very dangerous. It is caused by reactions in the atmosphere between sunlight and pollutants from motor vehicles and industries. Formation of Photochemical smog Primary and secondary pollutants with the help of sunlight form photochemical smog. A primary pollutant is an air pollutant emitted directly from a source (motor vehicles or industries). Examples of primary pollutants include NOx gases, SOx gases, COx gases and also hydrocarbons. Secondary pollutants are formed when primary pollutants, undergo further reactions and are not emitted directly into the atmosphere. An example of a secondary pollutant is ozone. The Formation of primary pollutants Primary pollutants are formed in the combustion of fuel in a coal-fired station. The output pollutants produced by coal fired stations are, sulphur oxides, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide. ...read more.

Middle

When multiplied together is gives us the energy and it shows photochemical reactions. Nevertheless, when this is formed the ozone reacts with the NO to reform NO2: O3 + NO O2 + NO2 When more NO2 is available, it will produce more oxygen atoms; consequently more ozone will be produced. When the air becomes polluted with high concentrations of hydrocarbons, as well as oxides of nitrogen, hydrocarbons are broken down in the troposphere to form carbon dioxide and water. This is done by the attack of a hydroxyl radical (OH). The peroxy radical (RCH2O2) reacts with NO to from NO2. RCH2O2 + NO RCH2 + NO2 This shows that it converts NO back into NO. The conversion of NO2 to NO reaction is the cause for oxygen atoms used to make ozone. The breakdown of hydrocarbons provides means of regenerating NO2 from NO and as a result the concentration of troposphere ozone rises. Minimising Sulphur Dioxide and Nitrogen oxide emissions The BPEO's of Longannet have chosen ways of reducing both sulphur dioxide emissions and nitrogen oxide emissions. ...read more.

Conclusion

* No solid wastes. * No products to be marketed. * It's clean. * Low cost power. * Causes minimum spoilage to the environment. Research on Photochemical Smog Current research is taking place by chemists to explain the chemistry involved in photochemical smog. One step is monitoring of troposphere pollutants. This involves, knowing the pollutants present in the troposphere and their concentrations. There are now several monitoring stations across the country recording pollutant concentrations. Secondly, studying individual reactions in the laboratory. This is that chemists have to perform experiments on pollutants to know what reactions take place and how quickly they occur. These studies help chemists to predict the rate at which the reaction will proceed in any set of conditions. Furthermore, modelling studies is another research of today. This includes computer stimulations studies to reproduce and predict the behaviour of pollutants in a photochemical episode. Therefore, chemists can predicts pollutants behaviours. Finally, smog chamber simulations. This is a laboratory experiment of a large scale. Primary pollutants are mixed in a chamber and are exposed to sunlight under controlled conditions. Probes monitor the concentrations of various species as the photochemical smog builds up. ...read more.

The above preview is unformatted text

This student written piece of work is one of many that can be found in our AS and A Level Physical Chemistry section.

Found what you're looking for?

  • Start learning 29% faster today
  • 150,000+ documents available
  • Just £6.99 a month

Here's what a star student thought of this essay

3 star(s)

Response to the question

The candidate has given a very detailed response and it is clear that they understand what they are discussing. They have also included information on current scientific research which is not only interesting to read but shows dedication and that ...

Read full review

Response to the question

The candidate has given a very detailed response and it is clear that they understand what they are discussing. They have also included information on current scientific research which is not only interesting to read but shows dedication and that the candidate is interested in their subject.

Level of analysis

The candidate has written a good introduction to this topic, they clearly state what they plan to discuss and have included a brief explanation of their chosen topic. In addition to this the candidate shows good scientific understanding throughout the essay. However I feel that they could have improved their work by linking together other related topics such as the uses of CFC’s and how these effect the atmosphere. This would show a breadth of knowledge and can make the essay more interesting to read. That said, the candidate has unfortunately not written a conclusion. It is essential that you conclude your work, as it allows you to draw the your essay to a close. A good conclusion summarises key points from your essay and includes a personal reaction to the topic.

Quality of writing

There some spelling and punctuation errors throughout this essay. These can usually be avoided if you take the time to throughly proof read your work. However the candidate does uses scientific terms accurately which demonstrates a good understanding of the topic.


Did you find this review helpful? Join our team of reviewers and help other students learn

Reviewed by pictureperfect 13/07/2012

Read less
Not the one? Search for your essay title...
  • Join over 1.2 million students every month
  • Accelerate your learning by 29%
  • Unlimited access from just £6.99 per month

See related essaysSee related essays

Related AS and A Level Physical Chemistry essays

  1. Marked by a teacher

    Heat of Neutralization. Objective: To investigate the ...

    5 star(s)

    When draining the solution, the mouth of the burette MUST be below your eye-level and all the people around were wear the safety goggles and lab coats. 5. During the experiment set 1, 2 and 3 in method 1, acid were added into the polystyrene cup containing the alkali solution,

  2. Peer reviewed

    Titration Lab Report

    4 star(s)

    However, even whilst using the equipment we used, there's uncertainty present which is as follows: pH probe: � Burette:� 0.05 ml Measuring cylinder: �0.1 ml Also, the phenolphthalein that was used to titrate was found not to be very effective.

  1. Peer reviewed

    Enthalpy of formation of calcium carbonate

    4 star(s)

    Improvements -Use the vacuum flask calorimeter with a cork stopper instead of the polystyrene foam cup -Use a more accurate reading thermometer (e.g. Beckmann thermometer) - Find out the specific heat capacity of other materials other than water. -Use sand paper to remove the oxide layer on calcium metal.

  2. An Introduction to Qualitative Analysis

    Then we could identify them with their color when we separate them by filter. Next we add C2O4, if the ppt is formed, then we know Ca2+ is involved in the solution. Next we add OH into the solution, if a ppt formed, that means Mg2+ is involved in the solution.

  1. SIMPLE CALORIMETRY TO FIND THE ENTHALPY OF COMBUSTION OF ALCOHOLS

    Compare the enthalpy of combustion of the alcohol with the literal value to check out the reliability of the result. i.e. Check the % error (% error = x 100%) of each alcohol are similar. If the variation is too large, redo the experiment carefully.

  2. Enthalpy Change of the Hydration of Magnesium Sulphate

    was not taken into account.This will also make a difference between the experimental value and the true value Furthermore, a long time was taken for the magnesium sulphate to dissolve completely in water.Additionally, the temperature will change once the magnesium sulphate is added into the water.

  1. Free essay

    Determining an Equilibrium constant

    * Safety spectacles * 5 conical flasks,250 cm3 * Wash-bottle of distilled water * Phenolphthalein indicator * Burette, stand and white tile * Small funnel * Sodium hydroxide solution,1M NaOH(standardised) Procedures :(PART B) 1. A burette is rinsed and filled with standardized sodium hydroxide solution.

  2. AQA As Applied Science Unit 3. Colorimetry experiment on Ribena juices

    If I or anyone was to get hurt from the volumetric flask I will rinse the cut part under cold water and then inform a teacher. I will then seek first aid medical attention to make sure everything is ok as it can get infected due to the chemicals which are being used in the science laboratory.

  • Over 160,000 pieces
    of student written work
  • Annotated by
    experienced teachers
  • Ideas and feedback to
    improve your own work