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AS and A Level: Genetics, Evolution & Biodiversity

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  1. cloning, right or wrong?

    This causes great strain on the egg and most of the time, it will fail. What's been cloned so far Since Dolly the sheep was cloned in 1997, hundreds of cloned animals have come to exist (such as pigs and cats). Sadly the range in the different species is limited. Attempts at cloning certain species (such as monkeys horses and digs) has been unsuccessful. This is because to method currently used is very traumatic. Improvements in cloning technology is necessary to make cloning in all species successful. How to Clone People This is the method currently being used to clone animal, and foetus.

    • Word count: 879
  2. genetic variation

    However, most environments change over time. Under this circumstance, variation generated by sexual reproduction ensures that the individuals within the population survive under the changing environment. If all individuals are genetically identical to one another, when one is not adapted by an environmental change, then all individuals are affected and the population will be perished. Therefore, increasing genetic variation is essential. Because of the differences, some may be slightly better adapted for survival than others.

    • Word count: 539
  3. The way that manufacturing proteins can help human factor VIII and produce insulin and the effect this has on society

    The gene for insulin production is cut out of human DNA and inserted into a ring of bacterial DNA. This is then replaced inside the bacterium which is then allowed to breed. Eventually there are millions of them, each programmed to produce insulin. This method of producing insulin is a great breakthrough for diabetics. Not only can the insulin be made more cheaply, but it can be made in large quantities. Prior to this, bovine insulin was used but people were understandably alarmed at being injected with cow hormones. This situation was worsened with the discovery of BSE being passed onto humans.

    • Word count: 612
  4. What is DNA?

    The discovery of DNA, its structure, and function was probably the most significant biological discovery of the 20th century. It has had a tremendous impact on science and medicine. From identifying genes that lead to the development of diseases, to producing pharmaceuticals to treat them, identifying and analyzing genes has led to extraordinary breakthroughs that have changed the face of the future of science forever. In the field of modern medicine and genetic research, the discovery of DNA has allowed for the improved ability to diagnosis disease, detect genetic predisposition to disease, create new drugs to treat disease, use gene therapy as treatment, and design "custom drugs" based on individual genetic profiles.

    • Word count: 582
  5. Cloning Plants & Animals

    Cells grow rapidly into small masses of tissue 5. More growth hormones are added to stimulate the growth of roots and stems Advantages of tissue culture Disadvantages of tissue culture A lot of new plants can be grown in a relatively short time All plants have same genetic make-up - so will all be vulnerable to same diseases or pests Little space is needed, and conditions can be precisely controlled No chance of new beneficial characteristics arising

    • Word count: 446
  6. Schizophrenia As A Genetic Disorder

    In addition to this there is also a 17% chance of developing schizophrenia in families where the identical twin of one parent has schizophrenia - this shows the influence of nature over nurture. However, the fact that concordance rates increase with genetic relatedness may be explained by the fact that this is because they are also likely to spend more time together, which means environmental factors may be influential, maybe more so than genetic. Also, fewer than 50% of children where both parents have schizophrenia develop the disorder, which is evidence against a direct genetic link.

    • Word count: 841
  7. IQ ESSAY

    and Pederson et al (1992)) which has led them to conclude that intelligence has a strong genetic component. Another way in which these factors have been researched is through adoption studies...... One problem with this research is that it is not clear what processes and mechanisms underpin the factors which are identified. In relation to the gene study by Plomin and colleagues, it is not clear what the gene Plomin has identified actually does in order to raise levels of intelligence. To understand this properly, we would need to know which factors in the environment would need to be present in order to make this gene effective.

    • Word count: 515
  8. Haemophilia is a bleeding disorder whereby blood doesnt clot properly.

    For blood to clot normally, a person needs to have at least thirty percent of the clotting factor. Treatment involves injecting the factor required so blood can clot normally. A person with haemophilia does not bleed any faster than a person without haemophilia, but the bleeding continues for longer if it is not treated. Internal bleeding (often referred to as a 'bleed') is the biggest problem for people with haemophilia.

    • Word count: 406
  9. Nature vs nurture

    Some scientists believe that people behave as they do because of a genetic predisposition or an innate "animal instinct." This is known as the "nature" theory of human behavior. Other scientists believe that people think and behave in certain ways because they are taught to do so. This is known as the "nurture" theory of human behavior. A fast-growing understanding of the human genome has recently made it clear that both sides are partly correct.

    • Word count: 653
  10. Only God has the right to interfere in our genes

    Genes direct the production of all the molecules that form the structures that of a cell. Genes determine the inherited characteristics that distinguish one individual from another. Each human has an estimated 90,000 genes. I think interfering with someone genes is totally wrong because its like deciding who will be what, like if doctors select someone as 99.99% footballer, then there will be no way he can beated by others. Some Muslims believe that Doctors are playing God because they are deciding our genes. They are deciding our colour, style, attitude etc. I think this is totally wrong because God made us and only he has the right to make changes in us.

    • Word count: 558
  11. I disagree with the statement "Only God has the right to interfere with our genes". We are the keeper of our own body, and it is entire our own responsibility to look after it.

    It raised questions of religion, ethics, and ecology that are of great concern to many people. Also known as genetic modification or genetic manipulation, genetic engineering is the reshuffling of genes usually from one species to another, existing examples include from fish to tomato or from human to pig. Currently Genetic Engineering is only a test tube science and applied in small amount of food production, but the more advanced research would be able to benefit the humans greatly. The further research, however, is not approved by all. Some Christians, apart from seeing human genetic research as the act of playing god, also believe that the world does not need to improve anymore, that the earth is not meant to be perfect; otherwise it would be no difference from Heaven.

    • Word count: 799
  12. Describe the main strengths and weaknesses of Utilitarianism

    He was concerned with social reform as the conditions in which people lived and worked were appalling. Bentham wanted to find a way of defining right and wrong without a need for a transcendent authority. In 'Introduction to the principles of moral legislation' he tried to establish a way of arguing for something to be good and bad according to its benefits for the majority of the people, he called this the principle of utility. Bentham established a Hedonic calculus by which happiness could be measured, the hedonic calculus was split up into six categories; duration, intensity, remoteness, purity, richness, and extent.

    • Word count: 558
  13. Discuss all factors arising from the use of biotechnology such as what biotechnology actual is, cloning, stem cell technology etc.

    Another disadvantage with traditional breeding is that crosses can be made only between sexually compatible individuals of the same species whereas with genetic modification the presence of individual genes can be detected rapidly, allowing fast selection of animals. Also, with genetic modification, the introduced genes enable animals to help make other products such as medicines. In traditional breeding the process is slow, as animals have to grow sufficiently to show weather they have the desired traits, and to reach sexual maturity before being selected for further breeding. In recent years biotechnology has come along way and made many scientific breakthroughs.

    • Word count: 810
  14. The danger of bird flu The bird flu was first recorded to have been passed on to humans in 1997 in Hong Kong 1. The virus

    It was then feared that this could be the next pandemic. It brought about the question as to why the events in 1997 did not cause more disease. The reason for this was that it was not contagious to the extent of one human passing it onto another 5. Some complications of bird flu, such as getting acute respiratory distress syndrome are nothing compared to the greatest complication, despite still only being hypothetical, this is that the flu is constantly evolving so scientists have to constantly create new vaccines. Because of its trait of being genetically unstable it could eventually become more contagious.

    • Word count: 993
  15. The case for and against genetic engineering

    (Bio Factsheet Number 13- The uses of genetic engineering Page 2). This is important as it means governments can buy more insulin than using insulin from the "pancreases of pigs and cattle" (Same source as before) at a cheaper rate and also a safer supply. This can be beneficial to third world countries as they have high populations, yet small amounts of capital. Another major reason for genetic engineering is the benefits on crops. Genetically modified crops have an increased "shelf life enabling the tomatoes to be stored for longer periods of time" (Bio Factsheet Number 69- Examples of genetically modified crops Page 3).

    • Word count: 809
  16. Central Dogma Central Dogma is first starts with the finding that the genetic information found in chromosomes is located on the DNA, and not the protein, as McCarty and MacLoed announced to the public in 1944. It was then also backed by the E. Coli

    RNA is the step between DNA and protein synthesis. Transcription is the synthesis of RNA under the direction of DNA. The DNA strand is used as a template during RNA synthesis. Both DNA and RNA use the same language, genetic code, and the language is simply transcribed, or copied, from one molecule to another. With a few differences, RNA is chemically similar to DNA. RNA contains ribose as its sugar and has a nitrogenous base of uracil rather than thymine. DNA contains deoxyribose as its sugar. Each nucleotide along a DNA strand has deoxyribose as its sugar and A, G, C, or T as its base, while each nucleotide along an RNA strand has ribose as its sugar and A, G, C, or U as its base.

    • Word count: 629
  17. Recombinant DNA technology (genetic engineering) is a method of changing the inherited characteristics of an organism by altering its genetic material. Genetic engineering involves the manipulation of deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA

    The process of engineering a DNA fragment into a vector is called "cloning", because multiple copies of an identical molecule are produced. Another way, recently discovered, of producing many identical copies of a particular DNA fragment is the polymerase chain reaction. This method is rapid and avoids the need for cloning DNA into a vector. The process of genetic engineering has great potential. For example, the gene for insulin, normally found only in higher animals, can now be introduced into a bacterial cell by way of a plasmid vector.

    • Word count: 958
  18. Moreover, The Dead Poet's Society does not include the theme of finding one's self or betrayal. In A Separate Peace Gene has trouble facing reality, so Finny

    Also, in A Separate Peace Finny befriended Gene instantly and showed him around the school perimeters. "Carpe Diem", a major them in The Dead Poet's Society means, "seize the day". This implies that tomorrow may be too late to accomplish your passion and life dreams. Instead, A Separate Peace has a theme based on loyalty. Gene couldn't let Finny down, because they were best friends. Moreover, The Dead Poet's Society does not include the theme of finding one's self or betrayal.

    • Word count: 681
  19. Galactosemia Galactosemia is a rare genetic metabolic disorder. Galactosemia was first discovered in 1908. Von Ruess, in a 1908

    By 1917 galactosemia was recognized has a genetic disorder. Later on, the defective gene that caused galactosemia was found in 1956. It was made detectable by screening in 1963. The child with classic galactosemia inherits a gene for galactosemia from both parents, who are carriers. Patients who inherit the classic galactosemia gene from each parent are sometimes classified as having the genetic makeup of two galactosemia genes.

    • Word count: 550
  20. "Only God has the right to interfere with our genes"

    It is wrong that people other than God should be allowed to change the way a child looks and the characteristics that it has. The non religious arguments against genetic engineering state that it does not give enough information about the consequences and has effects that would be permanent if anything went wrong. Genetic engineering, in most cases, is used when one or both parents have a faulty gene and do not wish to pass it on to their child.

    • Word count: 654
  21. Discuss the Advantages and Disadvantages of Genetic Engineering

    Genetically modified crops (transgenic) may provide increased profits to farmers while providing cheaper and more nutritious food. Genetic engineering also has helped make crops available that could not otherwise tolerate adverse environmental conditions .This is particularly useful to countries with extreme weather climates such as Ethiopia , Sudan when before hand , they couldn't produce many crops of their own , and relied heavily on international aid. The genetically modified crops are capable of resisting pests, generating higher yields, and producing food with high nutrient content. They are considered an effective means of dealing with pest problems while reducing production costs.

    • Word count: 486
  22. I am going to look at Down's syndrome which is an example of a genetic factor affecting the development of an individual. Down's syndrome

    Genetics contain the information and instructions needed to make living organisms. An individual person results from the interaction of their genetic pattern and their environment. Particular conditions result from genetic influences. I am going to look at Down's syndrome which is an example of a genetic factor affecting the development of an individual.

    • Word count: 228
  23. Over 150,000 years have past since the first human being was alive. He lived in Africa, and is said to be our common ancestor. Therefore, he is the one who gave us all our genes, and is the person from whom we evolved. Since then, the human race

    These advances include: matches, the x-ray machine, and genetic engineering. Our technology has had a tremendous growth since the times when we used sticks and rocks to induce fire. Matches are technological advantages that has helped us eat and provided us with fire. Fire is necessary for humans because we must maintain a warm internal environment. If we did not have matches to start a fire and cook we would obtain various harmful diseases. Another technological invention that we humans have invented and that we should be proud of is the x-ray.

    • Word count: 862
  24. The human Genome Project was designed to identify all the approximate 20,000-25,000 genes in human in DNA, determine the seque

    Technology and resources promoted by the Human Genome Project are starting to have great impacts on biomedical research and clinical medicine. Increasingly detailed genome maps have aided researchers seeking genes associated with dozens of genetic conditions, including, inherited colon cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and familial breast cancer. * Energy sources and environmental applications- This is the use of microbial genomics research to create new energy sources and develop environmental monitoring techniques to detect pollutants, * Risk assessment- Assess health damage and risks caused by radiation exposure, including low-dose exposures, along with health damage and risks caused by exposure to chemicals and cancer-causing toxins.

    • Word count: 927
  25. Human Genome Project

    The coding information in the DNA is given by the order of the nucleotide bases, and each gene possesses a unique sequence of base pairs. Scientists use these base sequences to locate the position of genes on chromosomes and to construct a map of the entire human genome. The project was intended to identify all the Gene in the nucleus of a human cell; to launch, by a process known as mapping, where those genes are located on the Chromosome in the nucleus, also there is another process known as sequencing, the order of the chemical bases in the DNA, which unravelled the genetic information.

    • Word count: 670

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